1. How many types of cracks can occur in a building ?
Ans.Mainly ,there are 2 types of cracks that can be found in buildings.
- Non-moving cracks are the result of shrinkage and are usually shallow.
- Moving cracks are caused due to excessive stress in concrete and generally are wider than 1 mm.
2.What is CAULKING?
Ans.Caulking refers to the sealing of joints in segment precast concrete. In other words ,caulking is a material used to seal joints or seams against leakage in various structures and piping.
3.which foundation can reduce cost? if sand is ordinary ?
Ans. Arch foundation can reduce cost up to 40%. Arch foundations are provided in the places where the SBC of the soil is very poor and the load of the structure is through walls.
4.Why should curing not be done by ponding and polythene sheets?
Ans. The primary purpose of curing is to reduce the heat loss of concrete that is freshly placed to the atmosphere and in order to reduce the temperature gradient across the cross-section of the concrete.
Ponding is not preferred for curing as this method of thermal curing is greatly affected by cold winds. In addition to that in ponding large amounts of water is used and has to be disposed off from the construction sites.
Polythene sheets are used on the basis that it creates an airtight environment around the concrete surface henceforth reducing the chances of evaporation over fresh concrete surfaces. But the usage of polythene can be a drawback as it can be easily blown away by winds and also the water lost by self-desiccation cannot be replenished.
5.What is bench mark in surveying ?
Ans. Bench mark is an object bearing a marked point whose elevation above or below a datum is known. The 2 types are the temporary and permanent bench mark.
6. who cause stresse in Sleepers?
Ans. The track components like the track modulus, the stiffness of rail, design of the sleeper, sleeper density and their load bearing capacity are factors which cause stresses in sleepers
7.What is aggregate in technical term ?
Ans. Aggregate is the component of a composite material used to resist compressive stress.
8.What is the distance between railway tracks?
Ans. 4 feet
9.What is guniting?
Ans. It is a process in which cement and sand are mixed in a proportion of 1:3 and is thrown on a concrete surface with a cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg /cm
10.what is River meandering ?
Ans River meandering refers to the formation of a member by a river by altering its straight course and following a sinuous winding path.
It can’t form a dam naturally. Volcanic dams form when lava flows and intercepts a river or lake, resulting in a natural barrier.