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What do you know about bar bending schedule ?

Bar bending schedule is a document that provides details of reinforcement steel bars, their shape, size, length, and quantity required for construction.

  • It is used by civil engineers and contractors for estimating the amount of steel required for a construction project.
  • It includes information about the diameter, length, and shape of each bar, as well as the number of bars required for each section of the structure.
  • It helps in reducing wastage of steel and ensures that the reinforcement is placed correctly in the structure.
  • It is an important document for ensuring the safety and durability of the structure.
  • For example, a bar bending schedule for a bridge would include details of the steel bars required for the foundation, piers, beams, and deck of the bridge.

How to calculate concrete quantity in structure to ready for casting ?

Calculating concrete quantity for a structure

  • Determine the volume of the structure to be filled with concrete
  • Calculate the required concrete mix ratio
  • Multiply the volume by the mix ratio to get the total concrete quantity
  • Add an extra 5-10% to account for wastage and spillage
  • Consider the type of structure and its intended use when selecting the mix ratio

What is steel density ?

Steel density is the mass per unit volume of steel.

  • Steel density is typically measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³).
  • The density of steel can vary depending on the alloy and composition.
  • The density of mild steel is around 7.85 g/cm³.
  • High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel can have a density of up to 8.05 g/cm³.
  • Stainless steel has a density of around 8 g/cm³.

What is load bearing and friction pile ?

Load bearing piles support the weight of the structure while friction piles transfer the load to the soil through friction.

  • Load bearing piles are designed to support the weight of the structure and transfer it to the soil below.
  • Friction piles rely on the friction between the pile and the soil to transfer the load to the ground.
  • Load bearing piles are commonly made of concrete or steel while friction piles are usually made of timber or concrete.
  • Examples of load bearing piles include driven piles, drilled piles, and screw piles while examples of friction piles include timber piles and belled piles.

What are the layers of road ?

The layers of a road include subgrade, subbase, base, and surface course.

  • Subgrade: natural soil or improved soil beneath the pavement
  • Subbase: layer of aggregate material placed on top of the subgrade
  • Base: layer of asphalt or concrete placed on top of the subbase
  • Surface course: top layer of asphalt or concrete that provides a smooth riding surface

What is the leaping length ?

Leaping length is the distance between two consecutive supports of a bridge or a beam.

  • Leaping length is also known as span length.
  • It is an important factor in the design of bridges and beams.
  • The leaping length determines the maximum load that the structure can bear.
  • For example, a bridge with a leaping length of 50 meters can bear heavier loads than a bridge with a leaping length of 30 meters.

How many test of concrete ?

There are several tests conducted on concrete to ensure its quality and strength.

  • Some common tests for concrete include compressive strength test, slump test, and water absorption test.
  • Compressive strength test measures the maximum load a concrete sample can bear before failure.
  • Slump test measures the consistency and workability of fresh concrete.
  • Water absorption test determines the amount of water absorbed by concrete over time.
  • Other tests may include durability tests, chloride penetration test, and air content test.

Calculate CBR value of soil ?

CBR value of soil can be calculated by conducting a CBR test.

  • CBR stands for California Bearing Ratio.
  • It is a measure of the strength of soil.
  • The test involves measuring the pressure required to penetrate a soil sample with a plunger.
  • The CBR value is expressed as a percentage of the pressure required to penetrate a standard material.
  • Higher CBR values indicate stronger soil.
  • CBR values are used in designing pavement thickness and evaluating subgrade strength.

Difference Between Concrete Cube Testing Reading Variation ?

Concrete cube testing reading variation refers to the difference in strength readings obtained from testing different samples of the same concrete mix.

  • Concrete cube testing is done to determine the strength of the concrete mix.
  • Variations in readings can occur due to factors such as differences in sample preparation, curing conditions, and testing equipment.
  • It is important to ensure consistency in testing procedures to obtain accurate and reliable results.
  • For example, if one cube is tested at 28 days and another at 30 days, the readings may vary due to differences in curing time.
  • Variations in readings can also occur due to human error in handling and testing the samples.

How many type of bench mark ?

There are three types of benchmarks in civil engineering: primary, secondary, and tertiary.

  • Primary benchmarks are permanent reference points with known elevations.
  • Secondary benchmarks are temporary points established for a specific project.
  • Tertiary benchmarks are intermediate points used for leveling between primary and secondary benchmarks.
  • Examples of primary benchmarks include survey monuments and geodetic control points.
  • Examples of secondary benchmarks include construction stakes and temporary leveling rods.
  • Examples of tertiary benchmarks include intermediate leveling rods and temporary benchmarks.