Civil Engineering Interview Questions and Answers |Top 100

1.How much water required for 1 cu.m in M20 proportion?

The water required for 1 cu.m in M20 proportion is approximately 186 liters.

  • The water-cement ratio for M20 concrete is generally 0.55.
  • The water content is calculated based on the weight of cement used.
  • For 1 cu.m of M20 concrete, the water required is around 186 liters.
  • The water content may vary slightly depending on factors like aggregate moisture content.

2.What is the basic requirement for execution of site ?

The basic requirement for execution of a site is proper planning and coordination.

  • Proper planning and coordination are essential for the successful execution of a site.
  • Clear understanding of project requirements and objectives.
  • Availability of necessary resources such as materials, equipment, and manpower.
  • Effective communication and collaboration among the project team.
  • Adherence to safety regulations and standards.
  • Regular monitoring and supervision of the construction activities.
  • Timely resolution of any issues or challenges that arise during the execution process.
  • Accurate documentation and record-keeping of the site activities.
  • Quality control and assurance measures to ensure the construction meets the required standards.
  • Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements.
  • Proper budgeting and financial management to ensure the project stays within the allocated resources.

3.Where is the lapping zone in Beams, Columns and Slab?

The lapping zone in beams, columns, and slabs is the area where reinforcement bars overlap to ensure structural integrity.

  • Lapping zone is typically located at the ends of beams, columns, and slabs.
  • It is necessary to provide sufficient overlap of reinforcement bars to transfer loads effectively.
  • The length of the lapping zone depends on the design requirements and the diameter of the reinforcement bars.
  • Lapping helps in maintaining continuity of reinforcement and prevents structural failure.
  • For example, in beams, the lapping zone is usually at the support or near the mid-span.
  • In columns, the lapping zone is commonly found at the bottom near the footing or at the top near the beam connection.
  • In slabs, the lapping zone is often at the edges or at the junctions with beams or columns.

4.What is the unit weight of Cement mortar?

The unit weight of cement mortar varies depending on the mix ratio and the density of the materials used.

  • The unit weight of cement mortar is typically between 2200 to 2500 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³).
  • The unit weight can be calculated by multiplying the density of cement mortar by the volume of the material.
  • The density of cement mortar is influenced by the proportions of cement, sand, and water in the mix.
  • Different mix ratios, such as 1:3, 1:4, or 1:6, will result in different unit weights.
  • For example, a cement mortar mix with a ratio of 1:4 (cement:sand) may have a unit weight of around 2200 kg/m³.
  • It is important to consider the unit weight of cement mortar when designing structures to ensure proper load-bearing capacity.

5.How many zone present in columns?

Columns can have multiple zones depending on the design and purpose.

  • The number of zones in a column depends on the design and purpose.
  • Zones can be created for different load-bearing capacities or aesthetic purposes.
  • For example, a column in a high-rise building may have multiple zones for different levels of wind resistance.
  • Another example is a decorative column that may have multiple zones for different patterns or textures.
  • The number of zones can vary from column to column and project to project.

6. How Do You Measure The Volume Of Concrete?

Answer: The volume of concrete can be measured using different methods depending on the shape of the structure. For rectangular structures, the volume is calculated by multiplying the length, width, and height. For cylindrical structures, the volume is calculated using the formula πr²h.

The volume of concrete is calculated by Multiplying its Length, Width, and Thickness together. For Example – 1m x1m x1m = 1 m³ of the volume of concrete.

7. Why Concrete Cover Is Provided For Reinforcement?

Answer: Concrete cover is provided for reinforcement in order to protect the steel bars or mesh from corrosion and other forms of damage. Reinforcement, such as steel bars or mesh, is used in concrete to provide tensile strength and to help the concrete resist external forces. However, exposure to environmental factors, such as moisture, salt, and chemicals, can cause the steel to corrode and weaken over time, which can compromise the strength and stability of the concrete structure.

8. Instrument Used To Check The Level On The Construction Site?

Answer: A spirit level is commonly used to check the level on construction sites. It consists of a glass tube containing a liquid and an air bubble. The tube is mounted on a straight edge, and the bubble should be centered to indicate that the surface is level.

9. What Is The Accuracy Of The Dumpy Level?

Answer: A dumpy level is a precision instrument used to determine height and distance on a construction site. It has an accuracy of around 5 mm.

10. How Do You Calculate The Weight Of 12m Long And 10mm Dia. Steel On-Site?

Answer: Its simple,

By multiplying the length of the steel bar with its unit weight

(unit wt of 10mm = 0.60 kg/m)

Weight of steel = 0.60x 12

      = 7.2 kg

11. Which Equation Is Used For Calculating The Unit Weight Of A Steel Bar?

Answer: The equation used for calculating the unit weight of a steel bar is W = D^2/162.2, where W is the weight in kilograms per meter, and D is the diameter of the steel bar in millimeters.

12. What Is The Size Of A Concrete Cube?

Answer: The size of a concrete cube used for testing is typically 150mm x 150mm x 150mm. These cubes are cast in a controlled environment and left to cure for a specific period before being tested to determine the compressive strength of the concrete.

13. What Do You Do If Any Concrete Cube Fails In 28 Days Compressive Strength Test?

Answer: If a concrete cube fails in a 28-day compressive strength test, the structure’s quality is called into question, and further testing and investigation may be required. Depending on the extent of the failure, the concrete may need to be removed and replaced, or remedial measures may be required to strengthen the structure.

14. What Is The Mix Ratio For M – 20 Grade of Concrete?

Answer: The mix ratio for M-20 grade of concrete is 1:1.5:3, which means one part of cement, one and a half parts of sand, and three parts of aggregate (stone chips) by volume. This mix provides a compressive strength of 20 megapascals (MPa) after 28 days of curing.

15. What Are The Steps Involved In Building Construction?

Answer: The steps involved in building construction typically include

  1. Concreting
  2. Masonry work
  3. Plastering work
  4. Flooring work
  5. Formwork
  6. Steel cutting and Bending
  7. Plumbing Work
  8. Electrical Work

16. What is the Unit weight of 12 mm Steel Bars.

The unit weight of 12mm steel bars can vary depending on the specific type of steel used. However, a general approximation is that the unit weight of a 12mm steel bar is approximately 0.89 kg/meter.

17. What is the Density of Steel?

The density of steel can vary depending on the specific type and grade of steel. However, the average density of steel is approximately 7,850 kg/m³ or 0.284 lb/in³. This density makes steel a popular choice for construction, manufacturing, and other applications where strength and durability are required.

18. In Fe – 415 Steel Grade, 415 indicates the___________of Steel.

In Fe – 415 steel grade, 415 indicates the minimum yield strength of the steel. Yield strength is the amount of stress at which a material begins to deform plastically, which means it starts to permanently change its shape without breaking. A higher yield strength indicates a stronger and more durable material.

19. What is the Volume of a 50 kg bag of cement?

The volume of a 50 kg bag of cement can vary depending on the density of the cement. However, on average, a 50 kg bag of cement has a volume of about 0.035 cubic meters (m³) or 35 liters. This volume is often used as a standard measure for cement in construction projects.

20. In Residential Buildings, Average Value of Stair Width?

In residential buildings, the average value of stair width is typically between 36 to 48 inches (91 to 122 cm). This width is considered standard and allows for safe and comfortable passage up and down the stairs.

21. The Slope of the Stair Should not  Exceed.

The slope of a stair should not exceed 50 degrees or 2:1 ratio, which means that for every two units of horizontal distance, the rise or vertical height should not exceed one unit. This is to ensure that the stair is safe and comfortable to use, and that it meets building codes and standards.

22. Minimum diameter of steel in Column.

As per IS (Indian Standards) code, the minimum diameter of steel bars in a column is 12 millimeters (mm). This is to ensure that the steel reinforcement is strong enough to withstand the compressive forces exerted on the column and to prevent buckling or failure.

23. Standard Size of Brick?

In India, the standard size of a brick is 9 inches (length) x 4.5 inches (width) x 3 inches (height) or 228 mm x 114 mm x 75 mm. This size is commonly known as the “nominal size” of a brick, which includes the thickness of the mortar joint used in construction.

24. What is the Unit Weight of RCC?

The unit weight of RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) varies depending on its constituents and density. On average, the unit weight of RCC ranges between 23 to 25 kilonewtons per cubic meter (kN/m³), which is equivalent to approximately 2,300 to 2,500 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) or 143 to 156 pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³).

25.  One Acre = ____________Sq. ft.

One acre is equal to 43,560 square feet. This is a standard unit of measurement used in land surveying and real estate transactions, especially in countries like the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. One acre is also equivalent to 4,046.86 square meters, 0.4047 hectares, or 0.00156 square miles.

26. What is the Full Form of UTM?

In the context of steel testing, UTM stands for “Universal Testing Machine”. A UTM is a versatile and powerful testing equipment that is used to measure the tensile and compressive strength, yield strength, elongation, and other mechanical properties of different materials, including metals, plastics, and composites.

27. Cement Expire After?

There is no specific expiration date for cement as per IS code. However, cement manufacturers recommend using cement within three to six months from the date of manufacture to ensure its optimal quality and effectiveness.

28. One square meter = _________ Sq. ft?

One square meter = 10.7639 square feet.

29. What is the unit weight of 25 mm Steel Bars

The unit weight of 25 mm steel bars is approximately 3.85 kg/meter or 0.118 kg/foot.

30. One Hectare = _______Acres

One hectare is equal to approximately 2.47105 acres.

31. One Gallon = ________Liters

One gallon is equal to approximately 3.785 liters.

32. One kilonewton is equal to _________ kilograms

One kilonewton is equal to approximately 101.97 kilograms.

33. One Tonne is equal to _________ kilograms

One tonne is equal to 1000 kilograms.

34. Maximum Free fall of concrete allowed is______?

The maximum free fall of concrete allowed is typically 1.5 to 2 meters (5 to 6.5 feet), as per standard industry practices. However, this may vary based on specific project requirements and conditions.

35. Instrument used for level work on a construction site?

The instrument used for level work on a construction site is called a “level” or a “spirit level”. There are different types of levels, including the dumpy level, digital level, and laser level, among others, each with their own advantages and limitations.

36. Minimum Bars in Circular Column Should be_______

The minimum number of bars in a circular column should be 6, as per standard industry practices. However, this may vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

37. What is the Full Form of AAC?

The full form of AAC is “Autoclaved Aerated Concrete”.

38. What is the Full Form of NDT?

The full form of NDT is “Non-Destructive Testing”.

39. What is the Full Form of JCB?

The full form of JCB is “Joseph Cyril Bamford”, named after the British industrialist who founded the company.

40. Which Test is conducted to determine the bearing capacity of Soil?

The test conducted to determine the bearing capacity of soil is called a “Plate Load Test” or a “Plate Bearing Test”. This test involves loading a circular or square steel plate onto the soil surface and measuring the settlement or deformation of the plate under a given load, which can be used to estimate the bearing capacity of the soil.

41. Ring and ball tests are conducted on which construction material?

BiRing and ball tests are conducted on bituminous materials, such as asphalt and tar, which are commonly used in road construction and maintenance. These tests are used to determine the softening point of the bituminous material, which is an important parameter for assessing its suitability and performance in various applications.

42. Minimum hook length as per IS Code?

Ans: As per IS Code, the minimum hook length for a 90-degree bend in reinforcement bars is 9 times the diameter of the bar for bars up to 32 mm in diameter, and 12 times the diameter of the bar for bars greater than 32 mm in diameter. However, this may vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

43. What is the extra length in Bent bars?

The extra length in bent bars, also known as the “bar allowance”, is the additional length of the reinforcing bar required to accommodate the bending and bending-out processes during fabrication. This length may vary depending on the specific bar bending schedule and the bending radius used, and is typically specified in the project specifications or bar bending schedule.

44. What is the Least Count of Dumpy?

The least count of a dumpy level, also known as the minimum graduation or reading, depends on the precision of the instrument and the scale used. In general, the least count of a dumpy level is typically between 5 mm. However, some models may have a higher or lower least count depending on the specific design and manufacturer.

45. What is Full of EGL?

Existing ground level.

46. A First Class Brick Should Absorb Water More than?

A first-class brick should absorb water up to 20% of its dry weight, as per standard industry practices. This means that if the dry weight of a brick is 2 kg, it should be able to absorb up to 0.4 kg (or 400 grams) of water. The water absorption capacity of bricks is an important parameter for assessing their quality and suitability for various construction applications.

47. Number of Bricks used in 1 Cubic meter of Brickwork?

The number of bricks used in 1 cubic meter of brickwork depends on the size of the bricks and the thickness of the mortar joint. For standard size bricks (190mm x 90mm x 90mm) and a standard thickness of 10mm for the mortar joint, the number of bricks required is approximately 500 bricks. However, this can vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

48. The Normal Consistency of  Portland Cement?

The normal consistency of Portland cement is the percentage of water required to produce a cement paste that has a standard thickness and can be used for testing. As per the IS 4031 (Part 4) – 1988 standard, the normal consistency of Portland cement is defined as the percentage of water by weight that will produce a cement paste with a standard consistency of 30±1mm when tested using the Vicat apparatus. The normal consistency for Portland cement typically ranges from 26% to 33%, depending on the specific type and grade of cement.

49. The Expansion in Portland cement is tested by…

The expansion in Portland cement is tested by using the Le-Chatelier apparatus, which is a small, specialized device used for measuring the expansion of cement during the setting process.

50. According to IS Code, Full Strength of Concrete is achieved after?

As per IS 456:2000, the Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, the full strength of concrete is generally achieved after 28 days of curing under standard conditions. However, it’s worth noting that the rate of strength gain varies depending on several factors such as the type of cement used, the water-cement ratio, curing conditions, and the presence of additives or admixtures. It’s important to consider these factors when determining the expected strength of concrete at different ages.

51. What is the Volume of 1 bag of cement?

The volume of 1 bag of cement in india is 0.035 m³

52. Minimum Grade of Concrete Used For RCC?

The minimum grade of concrete used for RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) varies depending on the structural requirements and the environmental conditions of the project. In general, for most structural elements such as beams, columns, slabs, and foundations, the minimum grade of concrete used is M20 as per IS 456:2000, which corresponds to a mix ratio of 1:1.5:3 (cement:sand:aggregate).

53. Cement Expire After?

In general, cement should be used within three months from the date of manufacture to ensure optimal performance. After this period, the quality and strength of the cement may gradually decline, which can affect the overall strength and durability of the concrete.

54. What is the Full Form of DPR?

The full form of DPR is Detailed Project Report. It’s a comprehensive document that outlines the various aspects of a project, including its objectives, scope, feasibility, budget, timeline, risks, and other important details. DPR is an essential document in the project planning and management process as it helps stakeholders to evaluate the feasibility and viability of a project and make informed decisions. The report is typically prepared by a team of experts, including engineers, architects, financial analysts, and other relevant professionals, and serves as a blueprint for the project execution.

55. What is the initial and final setting time for cement?

According to the Indian Standard Code IS 4031, the initial setting time for cement should be a minimum of 30 minutes, and the final setting time should be a maximum of 600 minutes (10 hours).

51. What are the Responsibilities of a Construction Manager in the project?

Responsibilities of a Construction Manager for overseeing and managing all aspects of a construction project. Some of the key responsibilities of a construction manager include:

  1. Planning and organizing the project schedule and budget
  2. Coordinating and managing resources, including labor, equipment, and materials
  3. Ensuring compliance with building codes and safety regulations
  4. Hiring and managing subcontractors and other project team members
  5. Communicating with stakeholders, including clients, architects, engineers, and other project participants
  6. Monitoring and controlling project progress, including quality control and risk management
  7. Resolving issues and conflicts that arise during the project
  8. Providing regular reports and updates to stakeholders on project status and progress
  9. Ensuring timely completion of the project within budget and according to specifications
  10. Maintaining project documentation and records for future reference.

52. What can be the potential risk factors for workers on the construction site?

Following are the risk factors for workers, for not following the safety protocols:

  • Risk to fall from height
  • Failure Scaffold and Trench
  • Change of Electric shock and arc blast
  • Motion Injuries

53. What you know about Hybrid Foundation

A hybrid foundation is a type of foundation that combines two or more types of foundation systems to provide the desired level of support for a structure. This type of foundation is often used in situations where the soil conditions are complex or variable, and a single foundation system may not be suitable.

54. What are the different ways of demolition?

Demolition is commonly done through Hydro-demolition, Dismantling, and Pressure Bursting.

55. Explain Floating Slab Foundation?

A floating slab foundation, also known as a monolithic slab foundation, is a type of foundation used in construction where a concrete slab is poured directly onto the ground without any separate footings or foundation walls. This type of foundation is commonly used for smaller structures like sheds, garages, and small homes..

56. Explain what is flashing?

Flashing is a construction technique used to prevent water from entering a building at joints where different materials meet, such as roofs, walls, and chimneys. It involves installing thin, impervious materials, such as metal or plastic, over the joints to create a barrier that redirects water away from the building

57. State different types of roof systems?

There are several types of roof systems commonly used in construction. Some of the most popular ones include flat roofs, pitched roofs, gable roofs, hip roofs, mansard roofs, shed roofs, gambrel roofs, and butterfly roofs.

58. What can be the phase inspections done by local authorities while construction?

Various inspections during the construction include,

  • Inspection of Site
  • First or pre-construction Inspection
  • Inspection of the Foundation before placing concrete
  • Framing inspection
  • Insulation inspection is done after the insulation
  • Lastly, the final inspection is done after the completion of the construction

59. State some of the Inspections, done after the completion of construction?

Listed are some of the checking or inspection done on the exterior side of the construction is,

  • Storm sewer system
  • Safety provision (terraces, porches, areaways)
  • Accessory buildings
  • Drainage
  • Retaining wall
  • Compaction of fill material
  • Caulking at opening
  • Pavement edging
  • Protection against moisture penetration
  • Design of dwelling structure

60. Alternate Bid is______?

An alternate bid is a proportion stated in the bid to be subtracted or summed from the base bid amount. Alternate materials or methods of construction force Alternate bids are to be proposed.

61. Explain the Order of Change request?

AAn order of change request is a formal process used to document and track any changes to the scope of a construction project. The process typically involves submitting a formal request for change, which includes a detailed description of the proposed changes, the reasons for the changes, and any potential impacts on the project timeline or budget.

62. What are the components covered within Construction Cost?

Construction cost typically includes the cost of materials, labor, equipment, permits, design and engineering fees, site preparation, excavation, utilities, foundation work, framing, roofing, insulation, windows and doors, electrical, plumbing, HVAC, finishes, landscaping, and any other necessary costs associated with building or renovating a structure. It is important to carefully consider and manage these costs to ensure the project stays within budget.

63. What does the Critical Path Method (C.P.M) mean?

The Critical Path Method (CPM) is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and track the activities involved in a project. It determines the longest path of activities in a project that must be completed on time to ensure the project’s completion by the deadline. It helps identify which activities are critical and require close monitoring to avoid project delays.

64. Explain the term is Demising Wall?

Demising wall act as a boundary that separates your land or house from a neighbor’s house or property.

The Significance of the labor and material payment bond is if the contractor fails to pay for all labor, materials, equipment, or services in accordance with the contract, he or she will guarantee payment to the owner under this bond. Hence It is a bond between the owner and the main contractor.

66. Explain what is progress payment?

A progress payment is a payment done by the owner to the contractor in parts after the completion of a certain amount of construction. Technically it is a difference between the completed work and material stored and a pre-determined schedule of values or unit costs.

67. What is a Structural Frame or System?

Beams and columns form load-bearing assemblies on a foundation called Structural frames. However, the columns and beams are mostly fabricated off-site and can be assembled on-site.

68. Explain the concept of “release of lien“?

Documentation executed by any individual or firm in the availability of supplying labor, material, or professional service on a project, which will release its mechanic’s lien against the project property.

69. What is an Architect-Prepared Contract?

An Architect-Prepared Contract is a legally binding agreement between an owner and a contractor that is drafted by an architect. This contract specifies the terms and conditions of the construction project, including the scope of work, the payment schedule, and the responsibilities of the parties involved. It ensures that the project runs smoothly and that everyone involved understands their obligations.

70. What does 1/8 on the architect ruler indicate?

The 1/8 measurement on an architect ruler typically represents one foot on a scaled drawing. In other words, if a line measures 1 inch on the scaled drawing, it represents 8 feet in real life. The 1/8 measurement is commonly used in architectural and engineering drawings to create accurate representations of structures and buildings.

71. What software programs can be used by architects?

The list of software programs is as follows:

  • AutoCAD
  • 3DS Max
  • Sketchup
  • Photoshop
  • Adobe creative suites
  • Microsoft Office
  • Digital Media
  • Their use is based on the type of architectural project.

72. Explain what are the skills required for a good architect?

A good architect requires a combination of technical, creative, and interpersonal skills. Technical skills include knowledge of building materials, construction techniques, and building codes. Creative skills include design and visualization abilities. Interpersonal skills include effective communication, collaboration, and leadership. Additionally, a good architect should have attention to detail, problem-solving skills, and the ability to manage projects effectively.

73. What things do architects have to take care of before starting any project?

Before starting any project, architects have to take care of several things. They have to analyze the site and the surrounding environment, research and understand the local building codes and regulations, and determine the project requirements and goals of the clients. They also have to consider the budget, sustainability, and accessibility aspects of the project. Additionally, they need to communicate effectively with the project team, including engineers, contractors, and consultants.

74What are the different dimension tools in CAD?

For accessing CAD dimension tools one must go to CAD>Dimensions. The wide range of dimension tools is listed below:

  • Manual dimensions
  • Interior dimensions
  • Point-to-point dimensions
  • Display temporary dimensions moving objects using dimensions
  • Auto exterior dimensions
  • Auto interior dimensions
  • End-to-end dimensions

75. What are the most helpful and best engineering Apps?

Some of the best apps for civil engineering are,

  • Sketchbook
  • Photoshop Express
  • Flipboard
  • Evernote
  • Dropbox
  • Instagram
  • Houzz
  • AutoCAD Ws
  • Magic Plan

76. What are Wooden Shingles?

Wooden shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood used to cover roofs or walls of buildings. They are typically made from cedar, redwood, or pine, and can be stained or painted to match the building’s exterior. Wooden shingles have been used as a roofing material for centuries and offer a natural, rustic look. However, they require regular maintenance and are not as durable as other roofing materials.

77. What could be the common problems that architect has to tackle?

Common problems faced by architecture are,

  • The client would sometimes not be able to know what they want that is when the architect will face problems in designing the structure.
  • When budget is limited
  • When the requirement of the customer is custom design at standard design cost
  • When an architect is provided with less space to work

78. What is the standard roof height like to be?

The standard height of the roof can be one or two stories tall. If you do not need to make the roof taller and yet you won’t make it look bigger from the outside, you can use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The pitch is adjusted so as to give a bigger look.

79. List the types of roofs used?

Types of Roofs are as listed below,

  • Gull wind roof
  • Mansard roof
  • Bell cast roof
  • Sawtooth roof
  • Monitor roof, etc.
  • Half hipped roof
  • Dutch gable roof
  • Skillion roof
  • Gambrel roof

80. List out the problems one might be facing while having a Cantilever balcony?

Cantilever balconies can pose several problems, including structural issues due to inadequate building support. Safety concerns are another issue, as the lack of support on one side can make the balcony more susceptible to movement and pose a risk to people using it. Maintenance and upkeep are also essential to prevent issues like rot or rusting.

  • Excess amount of deflection or bounce
  • Weakness of the deck structure is liable
  • Water damage to the interior of the house along with rotting is caused.
  • Unevenness within the house’s interior
  • Balcony for gardening or other purposes is not safe as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight and may result in earlier failure.

81. For what type of building Built-in balconies are suitable and what are their pros?

Built-in balconies are suitable for a range of buildings, including high-rise apartments, modern homes, and condos. These balconies are seamlessly integrated into the building’s exterior and provide residents with extended outdoor living space. The pros of built-in balconies include enhanced aesthetics, increased living space, and privacy, as they offer a private outdoor area.

82. Distinguish between Built Area and Super Built-up Area?

Built-up area refers to the total floor space covered by a building, including all rooms, corridors, and common areas. On the other hand, the super built-up area includes the built-up area along with the proportionate share of common areas like stairs, lobby, and lift, which are shared by all residents of the building. The super built-up area is usually calculated as a percentage of the built-up area and is used to determine the cost of a property.

83. What is the ideal size of the living room ranging from small to large?

1. Very small size living room= 7 x 10 feet

2. Small living room= 10x 13 feet (for two 2 seater sofas)

3. Medium living room= 12×18 feet (for 3 Seater sofa)

4. Large living room= 15×20 feet (for 4 seaters or 5 seater sofa)

84. What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

As per the Indian Standard code (IS 456:2000), M25 concrete is a mix design of concrete that has a characteristic compressive strength of 25 MPa (Megapascals) or 3626 psi (Pounds per square inch) at 28 days. The mix ratio for M25 concrete is 1:1:2, which means one part cement, one part sand, and two parts aggregate (crushed stone or gravel) are used to create the concrete mix.

85. Maximum temperature that is allowable for fresh concrete used according to the ASTM?

According to ASTM C1064/C1064M, the maximum allowable temperature for fresh concrete during delivery and placement is 90°F (32°C). If the temperature of the concrete exceeds this limit, it can cause rapid evaporation of the mixing water, which can lead to a reduction in the strength and durability of the concrete. To prevent this, measures such as cooling the mixing water or using chilled aggregates may be necessary.

86. What is Grunting?

Grunting is a term used in construction to describe a noise or vibration that occurs when a pile is driven into the ground. It is caused by the resistance of the soil against the pile, which creates a sudden increase in stress and pressure. This increase in pressure causes the pile to vibrate, resulting in a loud, low-frequency noise that sounds like a grunt. Grunting can be an indication of the pile being driven to the required depth, but it can also be a sign of potential issues such as pile damage or soil instability.

87. For filling cracks in masonry structures involve____ the type of bitumen.

For filling cracks in masonry structures, the type of bitumen used is known as bituminous mastic. Bituminous mastic is a mixture of bitumen and fine aggregates, such as sand or filler, which is used to fill and seal cracks in masonry or concrete structures. It has excellent adhesion properties and can be applied in a variety of temperatures and weather conditions. Bituminous mastic is commonly used in construction and maintenance projects for sealing joints, repairing cracks, and waterproofing surfaces.

88. Explain the terms bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF)?

Bending moment (BM) is the internal force that causes a beam or other structural element to bend or deform under an applied load. Shear force (SF) is the internal force that acts perpendicular to the axis of a structural element and causes a section of the beam to slide or shear in relation to the adjacent section. Both BM and SF are important concepts in structural engineering and mechanics.

89. What is the type of bitumen used for filling cracks in masonry structures?

Plastic bitumen is the best-suited bitumen used is for filling cracks in masonry structures.

90. What is the process called for covering the concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall?

The process of covering the concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall is called coping. Coping is the process of covering the top surface of a wall, often with a sloping or curved profile, to prevent water penetration and protect the underlying masonry from weather damage. Coping can be made from a variety of materials, including stone, brick, concrete, and metal, and can be designed in a variety of styles to match the architectural style of the building.

91. ——– is the wall constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling.

A retaining wall is constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling. A retaining wall is a structure designed to retain or hold back soil, rock, or other materials on one side, while allowing access or open space on the other side. Retaining walls are commonly used in civil engineering, landscaping, and construction projects to prevent soil erosion, create level ground, and provide structural support.

92. What is the duration of the minimum curing period?

As per IS 456 – 2000 recommendations the curing period of concrete must be at least 7 days in case of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), and at least 10 days for the concrete with added mineral admixtures. It is also mandatory for OPC exposed to dry and hot weather conditions to have at least a 10-day curing period.

93. What is the minimum recommended weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis as per ASTM C136?

According to ASTM C136, the minimum recommended weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis is 300 grams. The sieve analysis is a test used to determine the particle size distribution of a sample of aggregate. In the test, the sample is passed through a series of sieves with progressively smaller openings, and the amount of material retained on each sieve is weighed. The results of the test are used to determine the grading of the aggregate, which is an important factor in the design of concrete mixes.

94. Duration in hours for CBR samples to be soaked?

The duration for soaking CBR (California Bearing Ratio) samples depends on the type of soil being tested. According to ASTM D1883, the standard test method for CBR of soil in the laboratory, the samples should be soaked for 96 hours (4 days) if the soil has a plasticity index greater than 10, and for 24 hours if the soil has a plasticity index less than or equal to 10. Soaking the samples helps to simulate the effect of moisture on the soil in the field and ensures accurate test results.

95. What is the bearing capacity of soil?

The bearing capacity of soil is the maximum load that the soil can support without experiencing excessive settlement or failure. This capacity depends on factors such as soil type, moisture content, and the depth and size of the foundation. It is a critical factor in the design of structures such as buildings, bridges, and roads.

96. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb in concrete refers to a defect in the surface finish of the concrete where voids or cavities are left in the hardened concrete, resembling a honeycomb. This occurs when the fresh concrete is not properly placed or compacted, causing air pockets to form in the mix. This can happen when the concrete is not vibrated or consolidated properly, or if the formwork is not properly sealed, allowing the concrete to escape.

97. What field tests are necessary for the quality check of cement?

. Following are the tests cement should undergo on field;

  1.  On looking, Cement should have a grey color with a light greenish shade.
  2. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If the hand is inserted in heap cement or its bags, it should feel cool.
  3. When a pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sinks.
  4. Cement should be lump-free when checked by putting the hand in the mixture.

98. What are the types of cement?

Various types of cement which are used for quality construction are listed below: Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Colored Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, White Portland Cement (WPC), etc.

99. What do you mean by Water-Cement Ratio and how it is related to the strength of concrete?

The Water-Cement Ratio: The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used in a concrete mix. A lower constant ensures higher strength and durability but is difficult to mix i.e. low workability of Concrete Mix. Admixtures are added to deal with workability.

100. List the steps involved in the concreting process?

Steps In Concreting are as given below:

  1. Batching of Concrete
  2. Mixing.
  3. Transportation of Concrete
  4. Compaction of Concrete
  5. Curing