Top 100 Civil Engineering Interview Questions ( General Notes )

· Electrical conduits shall not run in column

· Earth work excavation for basement above 3 m Should be stepped form

· Any Back filling shall be compacted 95% of dry density at the optimum moisture content and in layers not more than 200mm for filling above structure and 300 mm for no structure

 · F SOLING IS SPECIFIED THE SOLING STONES SHALL BE LAID AT45° TO 60° INCLINATION (AND NOT VERTICAL) WITH INTERSTICES FILLED WITH SAND OR MOORUM.

 · Y REPRESENTS TOR STEEL GRADE – Fe-415 OF IS:1786. WITH CHARECTERISTIC YIELD STRENGTH OF 415 N/MM MINIMUM.

· ∅ REPRESENTS MILD STEEL GRADE – 1 OF IS:432 (PART-1)

· ALL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE FREE FROM MILL SCALES, LOOSE RUST & COATS OF PAINTS, OIL OR ANY OTHER SUBSTANCES.

· BY PROVIDING PROPER COVER BLOCKS, SPACERS, CHAIRS ETC.. ALL REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE PLACED AND MAINTAINED IN POSITION AS SHOWN IN STRUCTURAL DRAWING

· CEMENT SHALL BE 43 GRADE ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT CONFORMING TO IS:8112 OR53 GRADE ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT CONFORMING TO IS:12269-1987

CEMENT SHALL BE STORED IN DRY PLACES ON A RAISED PLATFORM ABOUT 200mm ABOVE FLOOR LEVEL AND 300mm AWAY FROM WALLS. BAGS TO BE STACKED NOT MORE THAN 10 BAGS HIGH IN SUCH A MANNER THAT IT IS ADEQUATELY PROTECTED FROM MOISTURE AND CONTAMINATION.

 · WATER USED FOR BOTH MIXING AND CURING SHALL BE CLEAN AND FREE FROM INJURIOUS AMOUNTS OF OILS, ACIDS, ALKALIS, SALTS, SUGAR AND ORGANIC MATERIALS OR OTHER SUBSTANCES THAT MAY BE DELETERIOUS TO CONCRETE OR STEEL. THE pH SHALL BE GENERALLYBETWEEN 6 AND 8.

 · CEMENT SHALL BE TESTED FOR ITS SETTING. 1. THE INITIAL SETTING TIME SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 30 MINUTES

THE FINAL SETTING TIME SHALL NOT BE MORE THAN 10 HOURS.

· SAMPLES FROM FRESH CONCRETE SHALL BE TAKEN AND AT LEAST A SET OF 6 CUBES OF 150mm SHALL BE PREPARED AND CURED. 3 CUBES EACH AT 7 DAYS AND 28 DAYS SHALL BE TESTED FOR COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH. THE TEST RESULTS SHOULD BE SUBMITTED TO ENGINEER FORAPPROVAL. IF RESULTS ARE UNSATISFACTORY NECESSARY ACTION/RECTIFICATION/REMEDIAL MEASURES HAS TO BE EXERCISED.

· A SET OF CUBE TESTS SHALL BE CARRIED OUT FOR EACH 30 Cum OF CONCRETE / EACH LEVELS OF CASTING / EACH BATCH OF CEMENT.

· WATER CEMENT RATIO FOR DIFFERENT GRADES OF CONCRETE SHALL NOT EXCEED 0.45 FOR M20 AND ABOVE AND 0.50 FOR M10 / M15 CONTRACTOR / MIX DESIGNER TO CARRY OUT THE NECESSARY INITIAL (PRELIMINARY) TESTS. FOR CONCRETE GRADES M20 AND ABOVE APPROVED ADMIXTURE SHALL BE USED AS PER MIX DESIGN REQUIREMENTS.

CONTRACTOR SHALL ALLOW FOR INDEPENDENT TESTING OF REINFORCEMENT STEEL FOR EACH DIA OF BAR FOR EVERY 50T AND AT CHANGE OF SOURCE.

CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN SLABS AND BEAMS ARE OFTEN PLACED EITHER AT POINT OF CONTRAFLEXTURE IN WHICH CASE THE CONCRETE MAY BE LEFT SLOPED OFF OR STEPPED OFF BY MEANS – 17 – OF STOP FORMS.CONSTRUCTION JOINTS LOCATED NEAR MINIMUM SHEAR SHALL HAVE STOP FORMS PERPENDICULAR TO THE ACTING FORCES. WHERE THE CONCRETE IS TO BE PLACED IN THE SECOND POUR, THE OLD CONCRETE SHALL BE THOROUGHLY ROUGHENED TO EXPOSE AGGREGATES.MOISTENED AND A LAYER OF RICH FRESH MORTAR SHOULD BE LAID MMEDIATELY BEFORE FRESH CONCRETE IS PLACED. IT SHOULD BE PLACED TO A THICKNESS OF 20 TO 30mm AND SHALL BE WORKED WELL INTO THE IRREGULARITIES OF HARDENED CONCRETE.

· ALL THE CONSTRUCTION JOINTS SHALL BE PRE-DETERMINED AS PER THE SEQUENCE OF OPERATION AND SHALL BE GOT APPROVED.

· CONSTRUCTION JOINTS SHALL BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION JOINT DETAILS. · EXPANSION JOINT DETAIL SHALL BE AS PER TYPICAL EXPANSION JOINT DETAILS.

 · ALL BEAM REINF. TO BE ANCHORED FOR A MINIMUM LENGTH OF 46 x DIA OF BAR INTO COL / SUPPORTING BEAM U.N.

· BINDING WIRES SHALL BE 16 GUAGE 1.6mm SOFT ANNEALED STEEL WIRES FREE FROM RUST AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS.

 · CONCRETE DESIGN MIX REPORT. 1. CONCRETE DESIGN MIX REPORT ALONG WITH THE TEST RESULTS FOR CONCRETE CUBES SHALL BE – 13 – SUBMITTED IN ADVANCE FOR APPROVAL BEFORE RELEVANT CONCRETING. AND THE MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT SHALL BE NOT LESS THAN 300 Kg/m 2. SLUMP SHALL BE 100 + 25mm.

POURING OF CONCRETE. NO CONCRETING OPERATION SHALL BE CARRIED OUT DURING INCLEMENT WEATHER CONDITIONS LIKE HEAVY RAIN, STORM AND HIGH WINDS.

POURING OF CONCRETE. NO CONCRETING OPERATION SHALL BE CARRIED OUT DURING INCLEMENT WEATHER CONDITIONS LIKE HEAVY RAIN, STORM AND HIGH WINDS.

CONCRETE REPAIRS IN ANY STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS SHALL BE CARRIED OUT ONLY AFTER INSPECTION AND AS PER THE APPROVED METHOD. CONTRACTOR TO SUBMIT DETAIL METHOD STATEMENT FOR ENGINEER’S REVIEW AND RESPONSE

· CONCRETE FLOOR SCREED SHALL BE IN PANELS OF 3M x 3M WITH JOINTS SEALED WITH SEALANT TO MATCH WITH JOINTS IN SLAB. LOCATIONS TO BE APPROVED BY ENGINEER PRIOR TO CONCRETING.

· ALL CONCRETING MUST STOP AT A SHUTTERED SURFACE ONLY.

· AT ALL CONSTRUCTION JOINTS THE REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE CONTINUOUS.

· CONSTRUCTION JOINT IN RETAINING WALLS & WATER TANK SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH AN APPROVED SEALANT

· ALL DEEPER EXCAVATION BELOW THE GROUND LEVEL SLAB SHALL BE RETAINED BY A LOCALIZED SOIL AND WATER RETENTION SYSTEM, AS MAY BE RETAINED BY A LOCALIZED SOIL AND WATER RETENTION SYSTEM, AS MAY BE

· DEWATERING BY SUITABLE MEANS TO BE ADOPTED (ENSURING NO FINES ARE DRAWN OUT) TO KEEP THE FOUNDING STRATA COMPLETELY DRY AND SHALL BE CONTINUED UNTIL THE GROUND FLOOR SLAB / BEAMS ARE CAST AND CURED TO ACHIEVE SPECIFIED DESIGN STRENGTH.

· CEMENT PROPORTION: CONCRETE MIX IN ABOVE SUCH FOUNDATIONS SHALL CONTAIN 10 PERCENT EXTRA CEMENT THAN SPECIFIED.

AT LOCATIONS OF ISOLATION / EXPANSION JOINT PROVIDE POLYSULPHIDE SEALANT WITH BACKER ROD POLYSTYRENE BOARDS.

· NO THROUGH BOLTS SHALL BE USED IN FORMWORK OF RETAINING WALL. AND WATER TANK WALLS.

· ALL LOOSE POCKETS AND SOFT SPOTS ARE TO BE FILLED IN MASS CONCRETE OF GRADE M-10.

 · BACK FILLING BEHIND THE RETAINING WALL SHALL BE CARRIED OUT ONLY AFTER THEGROUND FLOOR SLAB IS CAST AND HAS ATTAINED DESIGN STRENGTH.

· THE SPACE BETWEEN HARD STRATA (TO ACHIVE A MINIMUM OF 25 MT/M2) AND BOTTOM OF RAFT/ FOUNDATION SHALL BE FILLED WITH PLUM CONCRETE.

 · SIZE STONE MASONRY SHALL BE IN CM 1:6 UNLESS SPECIFIED OTHERWISE.

· CONTINUOUS WALL FOUNDATION SHALL BE STEPPED IN A RATIO OF 1 VERTICAL TO 2 HORIZONTAL WHEREVER LEVEL CHANGES ARE NECESSARY.

 · SLOPED PORTION TO BE FINISHED SMOOTH WITH TROVEL WITHOUT USING MORTAR. COLUMN PORTION TO BE FINISHED SMOOTH WITH CONCRETE.

 · GRADE OF CONCRETE SHALL BE AS PER FOOTING SHEDULE/ RAFT DETAILS

· ALL EXPOSED CORNERS OF COLUMNS AND BEAMS SHALL HAVE STRAIGHT EDGES AND SHALL BE CHAMPHERED IF SPECIFIED IN ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS. · CONCRETING OF COLUMNS , BEAMS, FACIAS, AND THIN SECTIONS OF CONCRETE MEMBERS SHALL BE CARRIED OUT USING APPROVED PLASTICISER AS PER MANUFACTURERS SPECIFICATIONS.

· CONCRETE POURING , TESTING, REMOVAL OF FORMWORK AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA SHALL BE AS PER RELEVANT INDIAN STANDERD CODE OF PRACTICE.

 · CENTERING OF CANTILEVER BEAMS AND SLAB PROJECTIONS SHALL NOT BE REMOVED UNLESS ROOF SLAB ABOVE IS CAST AND CURED AND SUFFICIENT BALANCING LOAD IS ATTAINED. PROVIDE PRE CAMBER TO CANT. BEAMS/SLABS

· BEFORE POURING FLOOR LEVEL CONCRETE, THE FLOOR SYSTEMS BELOW SHALL BE SUFFICIENTLY SUPPORTED BY MEANS OF PROPPING AND THIS SYSTEM SHALL BE APPROVED BY THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE.

· CONCRETE IN TOILET, KITCHEN, WATER BODY AREAS SHALL BE MIXED WITH APPROVED WATERPROOF COMPOUND AND WATERPROOFING OVER SLABS AND SIDES OF WALLS SHALL BE DONE AS PER ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.

· CONTRACTOR SHALL CHECK ALL THE OPENINGS AS PER ARCHITECTURAL/SERVICE DRAWINGS AND SHALL PROVIDE NECESSARY TRIMMING BARS.NO ADDITIONAL OPENING SHALL BE DRILLED IN THE STRUCTURE UNLESS APPROVED.

· CONCRETE SHOULD BE PLACED IN THIN LAYERS WHICH CAN BE EFFECTIVELY COMPACTED AS THE PLACING PROCEEDS SAY IN 300mm

WHEN CASTING COLUMNS, WALLS OR BEAMS OF DEPTH 700mm OR MORE, A LAYER OF RICH CEMENT MORTAR SHOULD BE PLACED FIRST. THIS IS TO AVOID ACCUMULATION OF GRAVEL IN THE BOTTOM LAYER AND TO HAVE A BETTER BOND.

· COMPACTION OF CONCERTE SHALL BE DONE BY MECHANICAL VIBRATORS. PROPER CARE SHALL BE TAKEN TO AVOID SEGGREGATION AND HONEYCOMBING.

CONTRACTOR SHALL SUBMIT SHOP DRAWINGS INCLUDING BAR BENDING SCHEDULE FOR APPROVAL PRIOR TO TAKING UP OF CONSTRUCTION.

· THE SECONDARY BEAM BARS SHALL BE PLACED OVER MAIN BEAM BARS WHEN THE DEPTH OF BEAMS ARE SAME AT JUNCTIONS.

 · SHORT SPAN STEEL SHALL BE AT BOTTOM LAYER IN TWO WAY SLAB SYSTEM AND SPACERS BAR, CHAIRS TO TOP STEEL SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH ADEQUATE COVER.

· NO SPLICING OF BARS SHALL BE MADE AT THE POINT OF MAXIMUM TENSILE STRESSES.

· FOR SPLICES OF REINFORCEMENT, MINIMUM LAP LENGTH FOR BARSSHALL BE 50 X DIA OF BAR.

 · NOT MORE THAN 1/3 OF MAIN REINFORCEMENT SHALL BE LAPPED AT ANY SECTION.

· SPLICES IF UN AVOIDABLE, MUST BE LOCATED FROM FACE OF THE COLUMN AT NOT CLOSER THAN TWICE THE BEAM DEPTH.

 · SPLICES IN BEAMS SHALL BE CONTAINED BY ADDITIONAL STIRRUPS AT A SPACING NOT EXCEEDING 150MM OVER THE ENTIRE LENGTH OF SPLICES.

· STIRRUPS SHALL BE CLOSED TYPE WITH ENDS HOOKED AT 135 WITH 10 X BAR DIA EXTENSION (BUT NOT LESS THAN 75MM).

 · SPACING OF STIRRUPS SHALL NOT EXCEED 200MM.

CONCRETE MIX SHALL BE AS PER SCHEDULE OF COLUMNS.

· P.V.C COVER BLOCKS TO BE USED WITH PRIOR APPROVAL OF ENGINEER.

· RINGS TO BE PROVIDED FOR FULL LENGTH OF MAIN RODS TOPREVENT DISLOCATION OF MAIN BARS WHILE CONCRETING, AT A SPACING AS SPECIFIED IN THE SHEDULE.

 · Ld SHALL BE 1. M25 AND ABOVE 46 x DIA

· COLUMN STARTER TO BE SET BY TEMPLATE AND SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH NEXT HIGHER GRADE OF CONCRETE MIX OF COLUMNS.

· BEAM BOTTOM LEVELS ARE TO BE MARKED ON COLUMN RODS AND COLUMN TO BE STOPPED AT THIS LEVEL TO AVOID EXTRA SHUTTERING OF COLUMNS BELOW BEAM BOTTOMS.

CURING OF SLABS AND BEAMS SHALL BE ACHIEVED BY PONDING ONLY, FOR A MINIMUM PERIOD OF 7 DAYS.

· CURING OF FOOTING TOPS,RCC WALLS,COLUMNS AND EXTERNAL BEAM FACES SHALL BE DONE BY COVERING THEM WITH GUNNY BAGS OR HESSIAN AND KEEPING WET CONSTANTLY FOR COMPLETE CURING PERIOD OF 7 DAYS.

 · GROOVE CUTTING MACHINE SHALL BE USED FOR CHASING OF WALLS FOR ALL ELECTRICAL CONDUITS.

· 4″ WIDE TO 7″ WIDE EXPANDED METAL MESH SHALL BE USED BEFORE PLASTERING OF ALL CONDUIT CHASINGS IN WALLS.

· FOR COLUMN-WALL JUNCTIONS & BEAM-WALL JUNCTIONS 4″ WIDE EXPANDED METAL MESH SHALL BE USED, BEFORE PLASTERING OF CONCRETE AND WALL JUNCTIONS. WATER RETAINING STRUCTURE

· CONCRETE MIX M-25 SHALL BE USED FOR ALL WATER RETAINING STRUCTURE WITH 330Kg/CU.M OF CEMENT MINIMUM.UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

· DITCHTMENT D.M OR CONPLAST LIQUID ADMIXTURE SHALL BE USED WITH M-25 CONCRETE AT 150 ml PER BAG OF CEMENT.

· PLASTERING SHALL BE DONE WITH C.M 1:4 USING PUTZ DITCHMENT D.M OR CONPLAST LIQUID ADMIXTURE AT 150ml PER BAG OF CEMENT.

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