Most Asked 250 Interview Questions for civil Engineers | interview Question

Question 1. What are the different types of foundation?

Three main types of foundation are

• Basement: In this a basement is prepared first on top of it building is constructed
• Crawl space: A crawl space is a raised foundation, it is built above the ground, just allowing enough space to crawl underneath
• Slab: In this foundation, concrete is directly poured into the pit made in the ground.

Question 2. Explain what is Hybrid Foundation?

Hybrid Foundation is usually used for high rise building, it contains both soil supported mat and piles. This type of foundation is helpful in reducing the amount of the settlement.

Question 3. What Are The Steps Involved In The Concreting Process, Explain?

1. Batching: The process of measurement of the different materials for the making of concrete is known as batching. batching is usually done in two ways: volume batching and weight batching. In case of volume batching the measurement is done in the form of volume whereas in the case of weight batching it is done by the weight.

Mixing: In order to create good concrete the mixing of the materials should be first done in dry condition and after it wet condition. The two general methods of mixing are: hand mixing and machine mixing.

Transportation and placing of concrete: Once the concrete mixture is created it must be transported to its final location. The concrete is placed on form works and should always be dropped on its final location as closely as possible.

Compaction of concrete: When concrete is placed it can have air bubbles entrapped in it which can lead to the reduction of the strength by 30%. In order to reduce the air bubbles the process of compaction is performed. Compaction is generally performed in two ways: by hand or by the use of vibrators.

Question 4. Describe Briefly The Various Methods Of Concrete Curing?

Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete.The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:

Spraying of water: on walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water. 

Wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw

Ponding: the horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.

Steam curing: of pre-fabricated concrete units steam can be cured by passing it over the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery. Application of curing compounds: compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.

Question 5. List out some of the software used in the construction sector to estimate cost and monitoring expenses?

• Tally System
• Sage
• Maxwell System
• Premier construction software
• eTakeoff
• Construction partner, etc.

Question 6. What are the responsibilities of a construction manager?

The responsibilities of a construction manager are

• Cost Estimates
• Pre-purchase of selected materials
• Selection of bidders for bidding phase
• Analysis of proposals
• Construction contract negotiations
• Construction Scheduling and Monitoring
• Cost control of construction
• Construction supervision

Question 7. List out the potential risk factors for workers on the construction site?

Potential risk factors for worker on the construction site

• Falls from heights
• Scaffold and Trench collapse
• Electric shock and arc blast
• Repetitive motion injuries
• Not using personal protective equipment correctly

Question 8. What Reinforcements Are Used In The Process Of Prestressing?

The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:

  • Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
  • Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
  • Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses reinforcements in the form of bursting is required.
  •  

Question 9. What is the ideal size of the living room ranges from small to large size?

• Very small size living room= 7x10ft ( for two seater sofas on one side of the room)
• Small living room= 10x13ft ( for two 2 seater sofa)
• Medium living room= 12×18 (for 3 Seater sofa)
• Large living room= 15×20 ( for 4 seater or 5 seater sofa)

Question 10. What Are The Different Type Of Slump Test Indications?

Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the work ability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests. They are as follows:

True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop of the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration. 

Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth in the long run effecting the durability of the concrete. 

Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.

Question 11. Explain what is the difference between built area and super built up area?

• Built up area: It includes your carpet area plus area covered by walls, pillars and ducts. It is usually 10% more from the carpet area
• Super built up area: It includes your built up area plus the area that you use as building amenities like passage to lift, stairs and lifts, gym, club, etc.

 Question 12. List out the types of roofs?

• Half hipped roof
• Dutch gable roof
• Skillion roof
• Gambrel roof
• Gull wind roof
• Mansard roof
• Bell cast roof
• Sawtooth roof
• Monitor roof, etc.

Question 13. Explain what are the problems one might face while having a Cantilever balcony?

Cantilever balcony are usually unsupported and extend outwards, so the problem with Cantilever balconies are

• Excess deflection or bounce
• Weakness of the deck structure
• Rot and water damage to the interior of the house
• Unevenness inside the house
• Can’t use the balcony for gardening or other purposes as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight

Question 14. For what building Built-on balconies are preferable? What are the advantages?

Built on balconies are mainly designed for retrofitting older buildings. This free standing balcony is supported in front of the facade on four columns. They are backed to the wall with brackets.

The advantage of built-on balconies are

• Old balconies can be dismantled, and the new ones can be erected immediately in front of the faced without disturbing the inner structure of the building
• The work takes place outside of the house, so there is no interference to the interior of the building

 Question 15. How to build the floor to ceiling bookcase?

To build a floor to ceiling bookcase

• First measure the distance between the floor and ceiling
• Cut two boards of the length of that distance
• Cut two boards with the width you require
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side with 2 inch nails. Keep a gap about one or two inches between each nail
• Attach top and bottom boards to the side boards with 2 inch nail. This will create a frame of your bookcase. Add the shelves to the bookcase the way you want and then paint it.

Question 16. What should be the standard roof height like to be?

For inhabited building, standard height for roof should be one or two storeys tall. If you don’t need to make roof taller and yet you want make it look bigger from outside use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The roof of the room can be adjusted by changing its pitch or by adding a parapet.

Question 17. Which are the top apps for you civil engineeer?

Some of the best apps

• Evernote
• STEEL
• Dropbox
• Instagram
• Sketchbook
• Photoshop Express
• Flipboard
• Magic Plan
• Houzz
• AutoCAD 

Question 18. Explain how you can use different dimension tools in CAD? What are the different dimensions available?

If you are using CAD and want to use dimension tools, then go to CAD>Dimensions and you can have access to a wide range of dimensions like

• Manual dimensions
• Interior dimensions
• Auto exterior dimensions
• Auto interior dimensions
• End to end dimensions
• Point to point dimensions
• Angular dimensions
• Display temporary dimensions
• Moving objects using dimensions

Question 19. Explain how you can turn off the display for dimension in CAD?

The display of your dimensions can be turned off in CAD for that you have to go under Floor Plan View and follow the following steps

• In floor plan active, select Tools – Display Options
• Scroll down to the dimensions- Automatic and Dimensions- Manual layers and remove the checkmarks from the Disp column
• When you click OK, the display of the dimensions in your plan will be turned off.

Question 20. What is the Unit Weight of concrete?

  The unit weight of concrete depends on the type of aggregates and amount of voids. As per IS : 456-200 Unit weight of PCC is 24KN/m3 and RCC is 25KN/m3

Question 21. What is the unit weight of Steel?
 
The unit weight of Steel is 78.5KN/m3

Question22. What are the Nominal Concrete Mix proportions for different grades:
  Important: M20-1:1.5:3, M7.5- 1:4:8,
        Less imp: M5- 1:5:10 , M25- 1:1:2, M30-1:1:3 (Cement:Sand:aggregate)

Question23. What is ductility?

 Ductility is the Ability to deform under tensile stress.

Question 24. How to find the weight of steel bar used in reinforcement?
Weight of Bar in kg/m = Dsquare/162.2   D- Dia of bar in mm

Question 25. What’s the difference between one-way slab and two-way slab?
 One way slab: Ratio of Longer Span / Shorter span > 2
       Two way slab: Ratio of Longer span/ shorter span <= 2

Question26. What is flat slab?

 The slab which is supported on columns (Flab slab don’t have beams)

Question 27. What do you mean by One storeyed, Two storeyed building?
 The building which has two floors is called two storeyed building.

Question 28. What’s the height of each floor?
  3m

Question 29. What’s the length of rise and tread in Stair case?
   Rise – 150mm to 200mm, Tread – 250mm to 300mm

Question 30. What’s the slope of Staircase?

   As per IS 456, the slope or pitch of stair should be between 25 degrees to 40 degrees.

Question 31. What do you mean by the moment of inertia?

  A quantity expressing a body’s tendency to resist angular acceleration, which is the sum of the products of the mass of each particle in the body with the square of its distance from the axis of rotation.

Question 32. What is a crank length in the slab?

 The crank length in Slab is 0.42 D. Where D is Depth of Slab- Top cover – Bottom Cover. 

Question 33. What are the types of a slump?
True Slump: The concrete mass after the test when slumps evenly all around without disintegration is called the true slump.
Shear Slump: When one-half of the concrete mass slide down the other is called the shear slump. This type of slump is obtained in a lean concrete mix.
Collapse Slump: When the sample is collapsed due to adding excessive water, it is known as collapse slump.
Zero Slump:  For very stiff or dry mixes it does not show any changes of the slump after removing the slump cone.

Question 34. What is grouting?

Grout is a fluid form of concrete which is used to fill the voids.

Question 35. What is allowable moisture content in Fine aggregate for the concrete mix?
We won’t use the aggregate if its moisture content is more than 5%.

Question 36. What do you mean by segregation?
Segregation is a separation of cement, sand from aggregate. This is caused due to Water cement ratio and  when concrete is poured about more than 1.5m

Question 37. What is Seepage?

   Slow percolation of water through soil is called Seepage.

Question 38. What is the Compressive Strength of brick?
 Second class brick-70kg/cm2
          First class brick-105kg/cm2
          Fire brick-125kg/cm2

Question 39. How do you check the quality of cement on the site?

   1. Date of Mfg: Cement strength decreases with its age.
         2. Color: Colour should be grey with light greenish shade and it should be uniform. Color gives an indication of excess lime or clay.
         3. Float test: A good cement won’t float if you throw a cement in water.
         4. When you put your hand in cement bag you should feel cool.

Question 40. What is Initial & final setting time of concrete?
 Intial Setting time : 30mins, Final setting time : 10hrs

Question 41. What is durability?
 
Ability to withstand under pressure is called Durability.

Question 42. What are the concrete tests?
 
Slump test, Compressive strength test, water permeability test, Water absorption test 

Question 43. What is bleeding in concrete?
  
Bleeding is one form of segregation, where water comes out to the surface of the concrete,   being lowest specific gravity among all the ingredients of concrete.

Question 44. What is the name of the machine to get compression test?
A.     
Universal testing machine (UTM)

Question 45. Describe civil engineering in simple words?

Civil Engineering is the second oldest form of engineering in the world after military engineering.

It is simply defined as an expertise in the process of designing, constructing & maintaining various systems, including public infrastructure, buildings, houses & much more.

Question 46. Which is the tallest man-made structure in the world?

World’s tallest man-made structure is the Burj Dubai which stands at 800 meters tall.

Question 47. According to you, what is that one important quality that a civil engineer should possess?

A civil engineer should have a bunch of important qualities to ensure a strong career path, however, according to me the most important quality which a civil engineer should possess is strong critical thinking & sound technical knowledge.

Question 48. Name the critical elements for a landfill?

There are 4 major landfill elements: Bottom Liner, Collection System, Cover & Natural hydrogeological settings.

Question 49. Discuss different types of building foundations?

While laying a foundation for any construction, three types of foundation patterns are mostly used.

Basement pattern: Wherein the basement of the building is prepared initially & then the rest of the storeys are constructed on top of the basement.

Crawl space pattern: Wherein a raised foundation is constructed first, this foundation is built above the ground, then the rest of the building is made on top.

Slab:This is the simplest way of construction wherein concrete is directly poured in the pit which is made in the ground.

Question 50. What do you understand by segregation?

Segregation is defined as a process of filtering cement & sand separately from the concrete mixture. In other words, segregation is caused due to vibration between materials forming a concrete.

One material being high in weight & one being less tend to be uneven while in a liquid state. The heavier material gets settled at the bottom of the concrete & lighter material moves on top.

Question 51. Explain the cavitation process in pipes & drains?

Usually due to the air bubble formation within the fluids usually because of low-pressure conditions get even lower than the saturation pressure is defined as the cavitation process. This creates a potentially damaging situation to the durability of pipes.

Question 52. What do you understand by soil analysis?

Soil analysis is defined as a process of soil testing to determine nutrients & elements which are embedded within that particular soil sample.

Question 54. What do you mean by concrete curing? What are the methods used for concrete curing?

Concrete curing is the process of maintaining the right temperature & apt moisture level for the recently placed concrete. This process is done to the wet concrete to ensure its drying process takes less time & maximizes concrete strength.

Some of the common methods used in concrete curing are water sprays, ponding, curing compounds, steam curation.

Question 55. What do you understand by slump tests?

Slump Tests are usually done to measure the consistency of the fresh concrete after it’s placed. It also measures the workability of fresh concrete.

Question 56. What is the software used in civil engineering?

AutoCAD and 3D Max are the most popular software used in Civil Engineering. These are helpful in making various high-tech presentations, reports, billing purposes. All the designs, modeling, design, architectural drawing, Auto-desk 2D and 3D designs can be successfully made with the help of this two software.

Question 57. How do you calculate the unit weight of concrete?

To find the weight of the concrete, multiply the length, height, and width of the area where the concrete is to be filled. Then you will get the volume of the place or the volume of the concrete to be used. To get the weight of the concrete in pounds, multiply the volume which we have got in cubic feet by 143.38 pounds/feet^3.

Question 58. What is the crank length in the slab?

Minimum length of a crank is 300 mm.

The formula of Crank length = (d1+d2+5) *10mm where d1 is the diameter of smaller bar and d2 is the diameter of the largest bar.

Also, the slope of the crank is 1:10 (one of the common civil engineering interview questions.)

Question 59. What is the strength of cement?

The cement’s strength is tested on hardened Cement-Sand mortar’s cubes, and these are prepared out of the cement which has a strength of 53MPa. It is derived from 53 Grade OPC Cement giving 28-days of compressive strength of the cement. It is one of the most common civil engineering interview questions.

Question 60. How is the strength of cement measured?

The measurement is done after the curing process has taken place for 7 days or 28 days. The load should be applied slowly at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute until the Specimens fails. We get the compressive strength of the concrete or the cement at the load failure divided by the specimen’s area.

Question 61. What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

According to IS 456 : 2000, M refers Mix and 25 refers the characteristic compressive.

Strength of concrete cube of 150mmX150mmX150 mm tested at the end of 28 days should be minimum 25 N/Sq.mm

Question 62. What is the maximum allowable fresh concrete temperature until used as per ASTM ?

32 OC

Question  63. what are the skills required to become an architect ?

  1. Conceptual understanding of designing models
  2. Basic knowledge of computer and architect related software programs
  3. Designing 3D models
  4. Engineering ability
  5. Business aptitude
  6. Legal knowledge

Question 64. What is guniting ?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

Question 65. For filling cracks in masonry structures, the type of bitumen used, is

Plastic bitumen

 Question 66. What is the bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF) – Explain.

A bending moment is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or moment is applied to the element causing the element to bend. The most common or simplest structural element subjected to bending moments is the beam.

Shear force is the force in the beam acting perpendicular to its longitudinal (x) axis. For design purposes, the beam’s ability to resist shear force is more important than its ability to resist an axial force. Axial force is the force in the beam acting parallel to the longitudinal axis.

Question 67. For filling cracks in masonry structures, the type of bitumen used, is

Plastic bitumen

Question 68. What is the process of covering of concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall ?

Coping

Question 69. A wall constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling, is known as

Retaining wall

Question 70. What is the minimum curing period?

IS 456 – 2000 recommends that curing duration of concrete must be at least 7 days in case of Ordinary Portland Cement, at least 10 days for concrete with Mineral admixtures. It also recommends that the curing duration should not be less than 10 days for concrete of OPC exposed to dry and hot weather conditions and 14 days for concrete with mineral admixtures in hot and dry weather.

Question 71. What is the minimum weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis as per ASTM C136 ?

300 g

Question 72. How many hours should CBR samples be soaked ?

96 Hrs

Question 73. What is a bearing capacity of soil?

Bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground by the foundation of the structure.

Question 74. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb, also known as air pocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting.

Question 75. What field tests are required for quality check of cement?

Quality of cement can be checked with color, physical properties, etc. Cement should have grey color with light greenish shade. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If hand is inserted in a heap of cement or its bags, it should feel cool. When pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sink. Also, it should be lump free.

Question 76. What are the types of cement?

There are various types of cement which are: Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Coloured Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, etc.

Question 77. what is the difference between built area and super built up area?

 Built up area: It includes your carpet area plus area covered by walls, pillars and ducts. It is usually 10% more from the carpet area
• Super built up area: It includes your built up area plus the area that you use as building amenities like passage to lift, stairs and lifts, gym, club, etc.

Question 78. What is Water-Cement Ratio and How it is related to the strength of concrete?

The water-cement ratio is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used in a concrete mix. A lower ratio leads to higher strength and durability, but may make the mix difficult to work i.e. low workability of Concrete Mix. Workability can be increased with the use of admixtures.

Question 79. Explain what is Hybrid Foundation?

Hybrid Foundation is usually used for high rise building, it contains both soil supported mat and piles. This type of foundation is helpful in reducing the amount of the settlement.

Question 80 . What are the steps involved in the concreting process, explain?

Steps In Concreting:

  1. Batching: The process of measuring different concrete materials such as cement, coarse aggregate, sand, water for the making of concrete is known as batching.
  2. Mixing.
  3. Transportation:
  4. Compaction.
  5. Curing.

Question 81. Explain what is flashing?

Flashing is an extended construction that is done to seal and protects joints in a building from water penetration. Flashing is installed at the intersecting roofs, walls and parapets.

Question 82. What is Bursting Reinforcement ?

Tensile stresses are induced during prestressing operation and the maximum bursting stress occurs where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of the load. Reinforcement is needed to resist these lateral tensile forces.

Question 83. What are the major problems in using pumping for concreting works?

 In pumping operation, the force exerted by pumps must overcome the friction between concrete and the pumping pipes, the weight of concrete and the pressure head when placing concrete above the pumps. In fact, as only water is pump-able, it is the water in the concrete that transfers the pressure.

The main problems associated with pumping are the effect of segregation and bleeding. To rectify these adverse effects, the proportion of cement is increased to enhance the cohesion in order to reduce segregation and bleeding. On the other hand, a proper selection of aggregate grading helps to improve the pump-ability of concrete.

Question 84. What are the responsibilities of a construction manager?

The responsibilities of a construction manager are

• Cost Estimates
• Pre-purchase of selected materials
• Selection of bidders for bidding phase
• Analysis of proposals
• Construction contract negotiations
• Construction Scheduling and Monitoring
• Cost control of construction
• Construction supervision

Question 85. What is Shear slump ?

 Shear slump implies that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. Consequently, it may undergo segregation and bleeding and thus is undesirable for durability of concrete.

Question 86. Why is concrete weak in tension?

 Concrete is made up of collection of materials (several aggregate types, cement, pozzolans, water, air…), which are stick together with a cement paste. The “interface” zone is the weakest link in the structure. When compressing, that interface only serves to transfer compressive stresses from one aggregate to the next. That does not require exceptional strength.

Under tension, the aggregates are trying to pull away from each other, and the glue is what holds the whole system together. Since it is significantly weaker than the aggregates, it is where the failure starts at much lower stresses.

Question 87.  What is grouting?
Grout is a fluid form of concrete which is used to fill the voids.

Question 88. What is the recommended slump for column ?

75 to 125 mm

Question 89. The bearing capacity of granite is generally ?

30 to 35 kg/cm 2

Question 90. What are the specifications of tamping rod used in cube filling for cube test ?

Ans :- According to the IS code 2386, a 16 mm steel rod with rounded edge

Question 91 .What is the minimum curing period ?

IS 456 – 2000 recommends that curing duration of concrete must be at least 7 days in case of Ordinary Portland Cement, at least 10 days for concrete with Mineral admixtures.

It also recommends that the curing duration should not be less than 10 days for concrete of OPC exposed to dry and hot weather conditions and 14 days for concrete with mineral admixtures in hot and dry weather.

Question 92. What are the functions of column in a building ?

Column is a vertical member in building whose Primary function is to support structural load and transfer it through beams. Upper columns transfers the load to the lower columns and finally to the ground through footings.

Question 93. What are the uses of Groynes ? 

They prevent, or slow down erosion, and stop the longshore drift. This, however, can have bad knock-on effects somewhere near.

Question 94. What is the initial and final setting time of ideal cement mix?

Initial setting time for ideal cement mix is around 30 minutes for almost all kind of cements. For masonry cement it can be 90minutes. Final setting time of ideal cement mix should be 10 hours at max. For masonry cement it shouldn’t exceed 24hours

Question 95. The portion of a brick cut across the width is called

Bat

 Question 96. What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?

 The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:

Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.

 Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.

Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses, reinforcements in the form of bursting are required.

Question 97. What are the common ways of demolition?

• Hydro-demolition
• Pressure Bursting
• Dismantling

Question 98. What are the main reasons for conducting pull-out tests for soil nails?

There are mainly four reasons for this test:

  1. To check and verify the bond strength between soil and grout adopted during the design of soil nails. This is the main objective of conducting soil nail pull-out test.
  2. To determine the bond strength between soil and grout for future design purpose. However, if this target is to be achieved, the test nails should be loaded to determine the ultimate soil/grout bond with an upper limit of 80% of the ultimate tensile strength of steel bars.
  3. To check if there is any slippage or creep occurrence.
  4. To check the elastic and plastic deformations of test nails. This is observed during the repeated loading and unloading cycles of soil nails.

Question 99. Explain QA&QC ?

Quality Assurance (QA): Quality Assurance is a set of activities for ensuring quality in the processes by which works are done. Quality Assurance is the process of managing for quality.

Quality Control (QC)Quality Control is a set of activities for ensuring quality in works. The activities focus on identifying defects in the actual products produced. Quality Control is used to verify the quality of the output.

Question 100. What Is The Ratio Of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?

M5 – 1:5:10

M7.5 – 1:4:8

M10 – 1:3:6

M15 – 1:2:4

M20 – 1:1.5:3

M25 – 1:1:2

M30, M35, M40 – Design Mix Followed

Question 101. The length of each fish plate is

457.2mm

Question 102. Rail chairs are used to fix

Double head rails

Question 103. What is guniting ?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2

It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces

Question 104. Flat bearing

The main purpose of using bearing plate is to

Distribute the pressure over wider area,eliminate the adzing of wooden sleepers,preventing the widening of gauge of curves

Question 105. How would you describe the soundness of cement?

Cement soundness can be described as a property which ensures that the cement does not go through any appreciable expansion pr experience any chance in volume once it has been set. This process helps get rid of any possibilities of the mortar or concrete from getting disrupted.

Question 106. Creeping of rails can be checked by using

Anchors

Question 107. What Is Rigging ?

In sailing, the ropes used to move the sails around so the boat will move in the right direction when the wind blows.

Question 108. What Are The Materials Used In Building A Gravity Dam?

There are many gravity dams constructed of compacted earth. High dams are generally concrete. All dams require a spillway to be safe. The spillway must be armored.

Question 109. What made you decide to become a civil engineer?

 I Decided to become a civil engineer because of my father who is a Math teacher. As a child he shared his great love for solving mathematical equations and other types of puzzles with me. He was always asking me to look outside the box to solve each dilemma. He encouraged me to have a quizzical mind and to always explore not only how something was built but also how it worked. He inspired me to figure out if the design could be improved upon by utilizing a different means.”

Question 110. what The Purpose Of The Gap In The Road On This Bridge?

Purpose of the gap in the road is to allow the road to expand and contract with temperature changes without causing damage or deformation to the road

Question 111. On Indian railways , minimum formation width in embankment for a single line of board gauge ,is

6.1m

Question 113. The device used for changing the direction of the engines is called

Turn table

Question 114. The device provided to prevent the vehicles from moving beyond the end of rail at terminals is called

Buffer stops

Question 115. What Are Moment Of Inertia And Its Importance In Civil Engineering?

The moment of inertia measures the opposition any kind of body will have against a certain momentum (along that same axis) trying to rotate that body.

Question 116. The distance between the running edge of the stock and switch rails at the switch heel ,is called

Heel clearance

Question 117. What are various tests for checking brick quality?

We can use water absorption test, hardness test, shape & size, crushing strength test, soundness test, etc. to check the brick quality. In water absorption test, we dip the brick for 16 hours in water. If weight of brick after dipping in water doesn’t exceed by 20%, it can be considered as first class brick, if below 22.5% it can be considered as second class brick, if below 25% it can be considered as third class brick. In crushing test, it crushing strength should be minimum of 10 N/mm2 for first class brick, 7.5 N/mm2

for second class bricks. In hardness test, we scratch the brick with nails. It should be scratch free. In soundness test we check the metallic sound by striking two bricks with each other

Question 118.The distance between the adjacent faces of the stock rail and the check rail , is called

Flange way clearance

Question 119. What is void ratio?

Void ratio is the ratio of volume of voids to volume of solids.

Question 120 .Stock rails are fitted

Against tongue clearance

Question 121.The switch angle is the angle subtended between the gauge faces of the

Stock rail and check

Question 122. Explain what is Critical Path Method (C.P.M)?

Critical Path Method is strategy and method of representing the respective tasks and activities involved in the construction through a symbolic diagram.

Question 123. How Do You Determine Specific Gravity Of Cement?

Cement is usually purchased as a powdery substance that is mixed with sand, aggregate, gravel, and water to form concrete. Since the cement itself is usually a powder, it is hard to measure a standard value for its specific gravity. In addition, since cement is usually not used by itself, knowing its specific gravity is not Particularly useful.

A more useful question is “What is the typical density of concrete?” A rule of thumb answer is that normal cured concrete has a density of about 150 pounds per cubic foot. This includes the weight of the cement, sand, aggregate, and that PArt of the water that chemically binds with the cement to form the concrete. Since water weighs about 62.4 pounds per cubic feet, concrete is about 2.4 times as heavy. Thus, the specific gravity of concrete is about 2.4. If you took cement and mixed it with water, you would eventually have a hard lump of useless cement and it would also have a specific gravity of between 2 and 2.4.

Question 124. The distance between the running face of the stock rail and toe of the tongue rail is known as

Throw of switch

Question 125. The maximum value of throw of switch for a broad gauge track is

95mm

Question 126 . In INDIA , the crossing number for passenger turnout is taken as

12

Question 127 .A warner signal ,which is first seen by the driver , is known as

Outer signal

Question 129. The reception signal is

Outer signal ,home signal

Question 130 .In a shunting signal , if the red band is horizontal , it indicates

Proceed

Question 131 What the steps involved in Building Construction?

 There are different steps involved in Building construction like,

  • Concreting
  • Masonry work
  • Plastering work
  • Flooring work
  • Formwork
  • Steel cutting and Bending

Question 132. How do you measure the volume of concrete?

The volume of concrete is calculated by Multiplying its Length, Width, and Thickness together. For Example – 1m x1m x1m = 1 m³ of volume of concrete.

Question 133. Why Concrete Cover is provided to reinforcement?

 Concrete cover for reinforcement is required to protect the rebar against corrosion and to provide resistance against fire.

Question 134. How to do check level on construction site?

I will check the level on construction site by Spirit level, Dumpy Level and Leveling Pipe.

Question 135. What is the accuracy of the dumpy level or minimum reading we can take?

With the help of a dumpy level we can take up 5mm accurate reading or minimum reading.

Question 136. How do you calculate the weight of 12m long and 10mm dia. Steel on-site?

By multiplying the length of steel bar with its unit weight

(unit wt of 10mm = 0.60 kg/m)

Weight of steel = 0.60x 12

      = 7.2 kg

Question 137. Which is the equation used for calculating unit weight of steel bar?

(D²/162)

Question 138. What is the size of a concrete cube?

15 cm x 15 cm x 15 cm

Question 139. What do you do if any concrete cube fails in 28 days compressive strength test?

If the concrete cube fails in strength test, I will conduct a core cutter test on concrete and send a report to higher authorities.

Question 140. What is the mix ratio for M – 20 Grade of concrete?

 1: 1.5: 3

Question 141. What is the Unit weight of 12 mm Steel Bars.

0.89 kg/m

Question 142. Explain what is floating slab foundation?

A floating concrete foundation is a type of mat foundation that consists of the hollow mat formed by a grid of thick reinforced concrete walls between two thick reinforced concrete slabs.

Question 143. What is the Density of Steel?

 7850 kg/m³

Question 144. In Fe – 415 Steel Grade, 415 indicates of Steel.

 Tensile Strength

Question 145. The height of low kerb ?

A kerb is a structure used to separate pavement and median, pavement and shoulder, pavement and footpath. In low kerb height is restricted to 100mm only.

Question 146. What is the Volume of 50 kg bag of cement?

0.035 m³

Question 147. What are the functions of grout inside tendon ducts?

Grout in prestressing works serves the following purposes:
1. Protect the tendon against corrosion.
2. Improve the ultimate capacity of tendon.
3. Provide a bond between the structural member and the tendon.
4. In case of failure, the anchorage is not subject to all strain energy.

Question 148. In Residential Building, Average Value of Stair Width?

900 mm

Question 149. What is the function of shear keys in the design of retaining walls?

In determining the external stability of retaining walls, failure modes like bearing failure,
sliding and overturning are normally considered in design. In considering the criterion of
sliding, the sliding resistance of retaining walls is derived from the base friction betweenthe wall base and the foundation soils. To increase the sliding resistance of retaining walls,
other than providing a large self-weight or a large retained soil mass, shear keys are to be
installed at the wall base.

Question 150. he Slope of Stair Should not  Exceed.

25- 40º

Question 151. What are the major problems in using pumping for concreting works?

In pumping operation, the force exerted by pumps must overcome the friction between
concrete and the pumping pipes, the weight of concrete and the pressure head when placing
concrete above the pumps. In fact, as only water is pumpable, it is the water in the concrete
that transfers the pressure.
The main problems associated with pumping are the effect of segregation and bleeding. To
rectify these adverse effects, the proportion of cement is increased to enhance the cohesion
in order to reduce segregation and bleeding. On the other hand, a proper selection of
aggregate grading helps to improve the pumpability of concrete.

Question 152. Minimum diameter of steel in Column.

12 mm

Question 153. What are the disadvantages of curing by ponding and polythene sheets?

The purpose of curing is to reduce the rate of heat loss of freshly placed concrete to the
atmosphere and to minimize the temperature gradient across concrete cross section.
Moreover, curing serves to reduce of the loss water from freshly placed concrete to the
atmosphere.
Ponding: This method of thermal curing is readily affected by weather condition (cold
wind). Moreover, a large amount of water used has to be disposed off the construction sites
after curing.
Polythene sheet: This method of curing is based on the principle that there is no flow of air
over the concrete surface and thereby no evaporation can take place on top of the freshly
concreted surface by provision of polythene sheets. However, it suffers from the demerit
that polythene sheets can be easily blown off in windy condition and the performance of
curing would be affected. Moreover, for water lost due to self-desiccation, this method
cannot replenish these losses.

Question 154. Standard Size of Brick?

19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm

Question 155. What is Unit Weight of RCC?

2500 kg/ m³

 Question 156. Explain what are the problems one might face while having a Cantilever balcony?

Cantilever balcony are usually unsupported and extend outwards, so the problem with Cantilever balconies are

 Excess deflection or bounce
• Weakness of the deck structure
• Rot and water damage to the interior of the house
• Unevenness inside the house
• Can’t use the balcony for gardening or other purposes as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight

Question 157. One Acre = Sq. ft.

   43560 Sq. ft.

Question 158. What is the Full Form of UTM?

Universal Testing Machine 

Question 159. What do you understand by segregation?
Segregation is defined as a process of filtering cement & sand separately from the concrete mixture. In other words, segregation is caused due to vibration between materials forming a concrete.
One material being high in weight & one being less tend to be uneven while in a liquid state. The heavier material gets settled at the bottom of the concrete & lighter material moves on top.

Question 160. Cement Expire After?

3 month 

Question 161. What is the IS code for Plain and Reinforced Concrete

IS :456

Question 162. One square meter = Sq. ft?

10.76 Sq. ft

Question 163What are the standard American codes for steel and concrete

ACI and AISC

Question 164. What is the code of practice for General Construction in steel

IS :800

Question 165. What is unit weight of 25 mm Steel Bars

 3.85 kg/m

Question 166 . One Hectare = _______Acres

 2.47  Acres

Question 167. One Gallon = Liters 3.78Liters

Question 168 . Which type of cement is used is construction of massive Dam structures

Low heat cement

Question 169. One kilonewton is equal to kilograms

 101.97 KG

Question 170. For Steel structures what is permissible vertical deflection

Span / 325

Question 171. One Tonne is equal to kilograms

 1000 KG

Question 172. Maximum Free fall of concrete allowed is ?

1.5 m

Question 173. Instrument used for level work on a construction site?

Dumpy Level

Question 174. What is the minimum reinforcement in beams

Ast/b*d = 0.85/ fy

Question 175. What is the maximum reinforcement in beams

0.04*b*d

Question 176. What is the minimum reinforcement in slabs

0.12 % of gross area

Question 177. What is the minimum reinforcement in columns

0. 8% of area

Question 178. What is the maximum reinforcement in columns

4%

Question 179. Minimum Bars in Circular Column Should be_______

6 Nos.

Question 180. What is the Full Form of AAC?

Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

Question 181. What is the Full Form of NDT?

Non – Destructive Test

Question 182. What is the Full Form of JCB?

Joseph Cyril Bamford

Question 183. Which Test is conducted to determine the bearing capacity of Soil?

 Plate Load Test

Question 184. Ring and ball test is conducted on which construction material?

Bitumen

Question 185. Where is the section for bending considered

At the face of column

Question 186. What is the maximum no of steps in a flight

12

Question 187. What are various limit states of strength

Flexure, Compression, shear and torsion

Question 188. Minimum hook length as per IS Code?

75 mm

Question 189. What is the extra length in Bent up bars?

 0.45 X D

Question 180. What is Least Count of Dumpy?

5mm

Question 181. What is Full of EGL?

Existing ground level.

Question 182. A First Class Brick Should Absorb Water More than?

 20 %

Question 183. What are the minimum no of bars to be provided in rectangular column

4

Question 184 .What are minimum no of bars to be provided in circular column

6

Question 185. What are various losses in prestressing

1 Elastic deformation of concrete
2 Shrinkage of concrete
3 Creep of concrete
4 Relaxation of stress in steel


Question 186. Vicats apparatus is used for

Consistency test

Question 187. Le chatliers apparatus is used for

Soundness test

Question 188. Number of Bricks used in 1 Cubic meter of Brickwork?

 500 Nos.

Question 189. The Normal Consistency of  Portland Cement?

 25 %

Question 190. The Expansion in Portland cement is tested by…

Soundness Test

Question 191. What is shear center in steel beam

It is point or axis through which load acts

Question 192. What is Strut

Struct is a compression member

Question 193. What is Modular ratio

It is the ratio of Modulus of elasticity of steel to Modulus of elasticity of concrete

Question 194. What is the minimum diameter of bar used in column

12

Question 195. What are bearing piles

Bearing piles transfer the loads to the hard strata

Question 196. What are friction Piles

Friction piles transfer the loads by friction between surface of pile and soil.

Question 197. According to IS Code, Full Strength of Concrete is achieved after?

 28 Days

Question 198. What is the Volume of 1 bag of cement?

 0.035 m³

Question 199. Minimum Grade of Concrete Used For RCC?

 M – 20

Question 200. What is the slenderness limit for column

Less than 12 , it is short column
More than 12 , it is Long column

Question 201. What is the initial and final setting time for cement?

Initial: Less than 30 min and 600 min.

Question 202. Le chatliers apparatus is used for

Soundness test

Question 203. What Is The Force Exerted By The Tacoma Narrows Bridge?

The force exerted to the Tacoma narrows bridge was initially the wind resistance. The wind resistance caused the whole bridge to act as a system with forced vibration with damping.

Question 204. How Do You Calculate The Power Of A Centrifugal Pump?

The input power, that is, the power required to operate the pump should be stated in Hp (horsepower) on the pump’s nameplate.

It can also be calculated by the 3-phase power equation:

P(in Hp) = VI(1.7c) = Rated Voltage x Rated Current x 1.73/ %Efficiency

If this is a consumer grade pump that operates on 120Vac, then the equation becomes P = VI, simply multiply the operating voltage, 120 x current (which is the number followed by the letter “A”.

The output power, which really is not technically power, but rated in Gpm (gallons per minute), or caPAcity should also be on the nameplate. If you have the make, model, and (not necessarily needed) the serial number (also on the nameplate) you could call the manufacturer’s customer service dept. As an application engineer, I have contacted countless manufacturers’, and service dept’s for assistance. It is now big deal to them, they will be happy to answer your questions.

Question 205. Why Nautical Mile Is Different From Statute Mile?

One nautical mile is defined by one latitude minute of arc (there are 60 such minutes to a degree). This equals 1852 meters, and roughly (but coincidentally) 2000 yards or 6000 feet. (Edit: actually, a standard nautical mile is 6076 feet, 6000 feet and 2000 yards are commonly used approximations, but produce an error of about 1%).

The statute mile had a little fuzzier definition to start with, as one mile was the same as 1000 roman PAces/steps. The definition has since changed, but one statute mile equals about 1609 meters.

Question 206. What Is Rigging?

In sailing, the ropes used to move the sails around so the boat will move in the right direction when the wind blows.

Question 207. What Is Absolute Pressure?

Absolute pressure is simply the addition of the observed gage pressure plus the value of the local atmospheric pressure.

Question 208. How Do We Calculate Absolute Pressure?

Absolute is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric

Question 209. What Is Gravity Flow?

Gravity flow is fluid flowing due to the forces of gravity alone and not to an applied pressure head. In the Bernoulli equation, the pressure term is omitted, and the height and velocity terms are the only ones included.

Question 210. What Is Horizon Or Horizontal Mining?

Horizon or horizontal mining can be applied to extraction of material from seams of any stratified mineral such as limestone or ironstone, but it is more usually associated with coal – PArticularly where there are several seams that are inclined or folded and/or faulted.

Horizon mining involves long level roadways (horizons) being driven from the shafts to the extremity of the area to be mined.

The levels of the horizons are chosen to intersect the maximum number of seams the maximum number of times. As the seams are intersected, headings will be driven into the seam so that the desired material may be extracted. This method of mining requires a thorough understanding of the geological structure of the area to be mined so that the level of the horizons can be chosen for optimum results.

This method of mining is popular in modern coalmines with seams worked from several horizons. The considerable capital outlay of driving horizons before production can begin is recouped by the advantage of having long straight level roadways of generous dimensions unaffected by the crushing effect of nearby extraction of the mineral.

Question 211. What Is The Difference Between Engineering Stress And True Stress?

In biology, Stress is something that disrupts homeostasis of an organism. In engineering, Stress is an external force that pushes, pulls, twists, or otherwise puts force on something.

Engineering stress assumes that the area a force is acting upon remains constant, true stress takes into account the reduction in area caused by the force.

Question 212. What Is A Kip?

1 kip = 1000 lbs.

Question 213. What Are Some Structures That May Be Subjected To Fatigue?

Bridges, hydraulic presses, burners trains.

Question 214. Will Going From A 3-tap To 6-tap Increase Water Pressure?

No, the pressure will be the same, you will get more volume only if your pumps can handle the GPM, to increase pressure you may need a booster pump or a single pump that is rated for your needs.

Question 215. Why Does The Pressure Increase Under Soil?

Soil pressure increases with depth due to the overburden or self-weight of the soil and due to loads imposed upon the soil.

For example, the pressure variation below the depth of soil is linear and the relation is given by pressure = unit wt * depth. As depth increases, there will be a linear increase in the soil pressure.

Question 216. What Is The Distance Between Railway Tracks?

4 feet, 8 1/2 inches

Question 217. How High Should The Water Tank Be To Provide A 60 Psi At Base Of This Water Tower?

138.60ft

2.31ft of water= 1 PSI

Question 218. What Are The Reasons For Geotechnical Site Investigations In Uganda?

  • To know the soil properties, in so doing be in position to determine whether the PArticular site is suitable for the purpose intended
    • To know the history of the site
    • To know what remedies need to be put in place before construction can start Based on the soil properties, that can be determined on site and in the lab, design the appropriate foundation for the structure.

Question 219. What Do You Mean By Honeycomb In Concrete?

Some people call it an air pocket in the concrete or a void.

Question 220. What Is The Purpose Of The Gap In The Road On This Bridge?

Purpose of the gap in the road is to allow the road to exPAnd and contract with temperature changes without causing damage or deformation to the road.

Question 221. What Is The Tensile Strength Of Wood?

The tensile strength of a material is the value at which the material fails when subjected to a tensile force. (Tensile means a force pulling the wood fibers lengthwise, as opposed to a compressive force.) There are a lot of different types and load cases for wood, so there is not one answer to this question. For example, wood used outside will fail at a lower load than wood inside. Wood is also anisotropic, i.e. it has different strength in different directions.

Example values of tensile strength vary anywhere from 175 pounds per square inch for Utility Grade pine to 1400 PSI for Dense Select Structural grade Douglas Fir. A good reference for material strength data for most species and grades of commercially available wood can be found in the American Institute of Timber Construction handbook.

Question 222. How Many Lbs Are There In A Yard?

A pound (Lb) is a unit of measurement for weight while a yard is a unit of measurement for distance.

If you are referring to common measurements used on a construction site, a “yard” is a common abbreviation for a “cubic yard”, which is a unit of measurement of volume. (A cubic yard equals 27 cubic feet.)

Since dirt weighs about 110 pounds per cubic feet, a cubic yard of dirt weighs about 2970 Lbs. Since concrete is heavier (150 PCF), a cubic yard of concrete weighs about 4050 Lbs.

Question 223. What Is A Projection Line?

Projection line is the way, in which the earth is shown on a flat piece of PAper.

Question 224. What Are Moment Of Inertia And Its Importance In Civil Engineering?

The moment of inertia measures the opposition any kind of body will have against a certain momentum (along that same axis) trying to rotate that body.

Question 225. What Is The Origin Of Name Railway Sleepers?

When sleepers were added below the railway, lines the trains ran more smoothly and people fell asleep on their journeys.

Question 226. What Is Bmc Stands For In Bmc Software?

BMC Software founders Scott Boulett, John Moores, and Dan Cloer began a contract programming PArtnership that operated in and around Houston, Texas.

Question 227. Does Brick Grows Bigger Every Year.

Usually bricks do not grow, but since stuff gets all over, it looks like it grows.

Question 228. How Did Street Originate In The Plumbing Term Street Ell?

A “street ell” may have gotten its name because it describes a 90° fitting PArticularly useful in tight, street ditches. When installing water pipes under a street, or from a water service, again under the street, into a home or business, this street ell allows one to change pipe direction with one less fitting, and in less sPAce, than with a standard ell.

Question 229. What Is The Absolute Pressure Scale?

Absolute pressure is calculated from a vacuum (0 PSI) and atmospheric pressure is14.7PSIa or 14.7 PSI above a vacuum 1PSI on a tire pressure gauge is called 1PSIg = 15.7PSIa 10PSIg=24.7PSIa 100PSIg=114.7PSIa etc.

Question 230. What Is The Difference Between Qa And Qc?

Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts. Since all three are necessary to manage the risks of developing and maintaining software, it is important for software managers to understand the differences.

They are defined below:

a) Quality Assurance: A set of activities designed to ensure that the development and/or maintenance process is adequate to ensure a system will meet its objectives.

b) Quality Control: A set of activities designed to evaluate a developed work product.

c) Testing is the process of executing a system with the intent of finding defects. (Note that the “process of executing a system” includes test planning prior to the execution of the test cases.)

Question 231. How Did The Romans Get Water Up Hills Using Aqua Ducts?

Technically, the Romans were not able to get water to move uphill in a general sense. All aqueducts move water from an elevated source (spring-fed streams in the mountains) to end-users at a lower elevation. The water flows almost entirely downhill from the source to the end user. If the water needed to cross a valley, the Romans would build an arched structure with an elevated channel to cross the valley, but even this channel would have a vary slight downhill gradient that allowed water to flow towards the end user. If a large hill was in their way, the Romans would either divert the channel around the hill, dig a trench through the hill, or dig a tunnel through the hill, all while maintaining a fairly constant, slight downhill gradient towards the end user.

The only exception to the rule of a generally constant downhill slope to the water channel is that specific tunnel segments, the Romans could build the tunnel as an inverted siphon (mentioned above) to cross a depression or valley and raise the water level on the downhill side almost to the level of the uphill side. To do this requires a well-sealed tunnel strong enough to withstand the increased water pressure within the siphon. Note, however, that except for gaining a little bit of elevation if you slow down fast-moving water, you normally cannot get water to flow out of the outlet at a higher elevation than the inlet. So technically, even the Romans were not able to get water to flow “up a hill”.

Question 232. Will Water Damage Concrete?

As far as only concrete is concerned i.e. plain concrete, the effect of water seePAge is very little (depending upon the grade of concrete) whereas for RCC (reinforced cement concrete) water that seeps in corrodes the reinforcement and thus reduces the life of the structure. The defects that water seePAge induces in concrete are as follows:

a) induces capillary formation (due to the detiorating characteristics of water)

b) With this capillaries the concrete starts sPAlling out; i.e. the places where capillaries are formed, with even slight amount of stress that portion comes out and exposes the steel to the atmosphere

c) Concrete has a pH of about 12 -13. It also reduces the pH of the concrete when in salty water (or) when exposed to marshy areas.

d) Reduces the overall strength of concrete

e) Reduces durability

f) Reduces permeability to further water seePAge

g) Results in ageing of structures

Question 233. How Do You Determine Specific Gravity Of Cement?

Cement is usually purchased as a powdery substance that is mixed with sand, aggregate, gravel, and water to form concrete. Since the cement itself is usually a powder, it is hard to measure a standard value for its specific gravity. In addition, since cement is usually not used by itself, knowing its specific gravity is not PArticularly useful.

A more useful question is “What is the typical density of concrete?” A rule of thumb answer is that normal cured concrete has a density of about 150 pounds per cubic foot. This includes the weight of the cement, sand, aggregate, and that PArt of the water that chemically binds with the cement to form the concrete. Since water weighs about 62.4 pounds per cubic feet, concrete is about 2.4 times as heavy. Thus, the specific gravity of concrete is about 2.4. If you took cement and mixed it with water, you would eventually have a hard lump of useless cement and it would also have a specific gravity of between 2 and 2.4.

Question 234. What Is The Meaning Of A Blue Land Surveyors Flag?

If the flag was placed by Utility personnel responding to a “One-call” locate request, the blue flag indicates a buried water line. You see these marked when a contractor calls the “Call before you dig number” a couple of days prior to excavating. This is required by law in each state to reduce the likelihood of damaging underground utilities when excavating.

The standard color code used by almost all utility comPAnies for PAinting & flags is:

White – “Here is the area I plan on excavating!”

Blue – water line

Red -electricity

Yellow -natural gas

Green -sewer

Orange -telephone and/or fiber optic line

If the blue flagging was a fuzzy blue marker nailed to the top of a wood surveyor’s stake, then it probably serves to indicate the top of the grade at which the engineer wants the earthmoving equipment to place fill dirt. These are called “blue-top” stakes.

Question 235. What Are Advancements In Civil Engineering?

Unlike other fields of engineering, the major advancement of the filed has been in the early years of the century before the last century where the use of concrete technology is advanced. The use of cement as a construction material is since the turn of the last century, improvement in the field increase by the use of steel elements in the construction of buildings and bridges of various types. With the help of two, it was possible to do multistory buildings in the world.

Machineries were created to speed up the construction structures. The last century has also seen the advent of sophisticated design to withstand the effect of earthquake that was not possible before. With the use of computers, development of model and analysis of structures under the effect of loads was made possible. Before just two decades, it used to take months and months to design high-rise building and big bridges. Now it is a matter of hours.

Question 236. Why Is The Statue Of Liberty Made Of Copper?

Copper is a very durable material when exposed to weather and is soft enough that it can be easily molded to curved shapes such as those in the Statue of Liberty. It is also traditionally used in buildings for complex roofs, so there would have been trades people available trained to use it.

Other metals that can be molded are lead but it does not have the attractive verdigris color, and gold much is more expensive.

Question 237. Are Cruise Ships Built For The Transatlantic Run?

The Queen Mary 2 was built for transatlantic crossings, but much smaller ships can make the crossing easily. In 1995, I crossed the Atlantic from New York to the Azores on the Royal Princess (which was not the same ship as the current Royal Princess), which was about one-fourth the size of the QM2. Just about any seaworthy PAssenger ship can navigate the Atlantic safely, if not comfortably.

Question 238. What Is Diversion Tunnel In A Dam?

When a dam is to be built, a diversion tunnel is usually bored through solid rock next to the dam site to byPAss the dam construction site. The dam is built while the river flows through the diversion tunnel.

Question 239. What Distance In Meters On The Ground Is The Equivalent Of One Second Of Arc In Longitude Or Latitude?

One minute of arc as measured at the centre of the Earth covers one nautical mile on the surface of the Earth at mean sea level. One nautical mile is 6080 feet or 1853.2 meters. Therefore one second of arc would be 6080 / 60 = 101.3 feet or 30.886 meters. 

Lines of latitude are at regular intervals PArallel to the equator. The relationship between degrees of latitude and the distance sPAnned on the earth’s surface remains constant. Therefore at all latitudes 1 minute of latitude sPAns 1 nautical mile on the earths surface.

Lines of longitude converge at the poles. Therefore, the relationship between degrees of longitude and the distance sPAnned on the earth’s surface is reduced as the poles are approached.

At the equator, the distance sPAnned by 1 minute of longitude would be 1 nautical mile. At the poles, it would be zero. To calculate the actual distance on the surface of the earth between two points of known latitude and longitude requires knowledge of spherical trigonometry to calculate the great circle distance between the two points.

The distances quoted are for the surface of the earth at mean sea level. Distances will be increased above sea level and reduced below it.

Question 240. How Do You Maintain Water Pressure?

If you have water pressure and wish to maintain it, do not cause flow in the line, which will reduce pressure due to friction. To keep pressure up, reduce friction by increasing the line size or eliminating some other restriction.

Question 241. What Are Some Facts About Concrete?

Actually, drying is not directly linked to hardness in concrete. After concrete is poured, putting it in a wet environment by spraying it constantly with water will hasten its hardening and its curing. After concrete cures, it is hard.

Question 242. Who Designed The City Of Washington Dc?

Pierre L’enfant

Question 243. Where Is The Worlds Longest Elevator And How Long Is It?

Gold mines in South Africa go a few kilometers below the surface. The deepest mine now is the Mponeng Mine in the Orange Free State. The depth of the mine is well over 3000m from the surface and is getting deeper. The lift itself descends 3037m to a point 1200m below sea level. It takes 4 minutes.

Question 244. How Many Kilo-newtons Equals 1000 Kilogram?

When the 1000 kg are at rest, on Earth with gravitational acceleration 9.81 m/s2, 1000 kg equal 9.81 kN.

Question 245. How Is The Leaning Tower Of Pisa Supported?

In the same manner, it was supported when it was constructed. However, it has gotten some “help” over the years.

In the last couple of decades, the responsible PArties rolled up their sleeves and removed something approaching 40 meters3 of earth from under the higher side of the structure. This had the effect of straightening it toward the vertical by about a foot and a half at the top. For the first time in its history, it is no longer moving. In addition, in the good-news corner of the PAper is that it is open to the public again. In addition, the folks who lived near the tower in the direction it was leaning have returned to their homes and do not have to sleep with an eye and an ear open.

Question 246. What Does Civil Engineering Mean?

They do many interesting things. Their job has to do a lot with design and construction. They can tell you what works and what will not for all sorts of situations. There is a lot of mathematics involved along with many other disciplines. They have to have a good solid understanding of how the environment works and how nature interacts with man made. They are probably best known for designing bridges, interstates, skyscrapers, canals, and so forth.

Question 247. How Long Does It Take Concrete To Harden?

It takes 28 days to cure.

Question 248. What Is The Biggest Dam In America

The Grand Coulee Dam – Grand Coulee, Washington

a) Length 5,223 ft

b) Height 550 ft

Question 249. How Does Siphoning Work?

Pretty good if the outside hose is a lot lower than the inside hose. The siphon works by a hose stuck in a fluid container higher than the receiving container. Suction is shortly placed on the lower side of the hose until the fluid is flowing down the down line. Gravity will cause a continued flow.

Question 250. Why Was The Empire State Building Made Of Steel?

Strength–Steel is very strong

Flexibility–Ability to flex in the wind

Cost–Inexpensive and fast to build; prefab construction

Concrete, a possible alternative, has less compressive strength than steel. The bottom support structure of the empire state building would consist of a large percentage of solid concrete simply to support the weight of the building.

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