civil engineer interview question | Top 40 interview question

What is camber, How do we provide camber, Steps for the construction of a Road ?

Camber is the slope provided to the road surface to drain off rainwater. It is achieved by raising the center of the road surface.

  1. Camber is the curvature provided to the road surface to ensure proper drainage of rainwater.
  2. It is achieved by raising the center of the road surface.
  3. The amount of camber depends on the width of the road and the expected rainfall.
  4. The steps for the construction of a road include surveying, clearing the area, laying the sub-base, laying the base, and finally laying the surface course.
  5. Camber is provided during the laying of the surface course.

What is an admixture, How do they affect the concrete, name various admixtures ?

Admixtures are chemicals added to concrete to enhance its properties. They affect the workability, strength, and durability of concrete.

  1. Admixtures are added to concrete to improve its quality and performance.
  2. They can affect the setting time, workability, strength, and durability of concrete.
  3. Examples of admixtures include water reducers, accelerators, retarders, air-entraining agents, and superplasticizers.

What Is The Slope Of The Staircase?

As per IS 456, the slope or pitch of stairs should be between 25 degrees to 40 degrees.

Why reinforcement is provided alternative in column?

Reinforcement is provided in column to increase its load-bearing capacity and prevent failure due to compression.

  1. Reinforcement helps to resist bending and shear forces in the column.
  2. It also helps to prevent buckling and reduces the risk of collapse.
  3. The amount and type of reinforcement used depends on the size and height of the column.
  4. For example, a taller and thinner column may require more reinforcement than a shorter and thicker one.

What’s The Difference Between A One-Way Slab And A Two-Way Slab?

One way slab: Ratio of Longer Span / Shorter span >  2
Two-way slab: when the Ratio of Longer span / shorter span <= 2

Do you have idea about safety and safety rules at L&T?

Yes, safety is a top priority at L&T and there are strict safety rules in place.

  1. L&T has a comprehensive safety policy that covers all aspects of their operations.
  2. All employees are required to undergo safety training and follow safety protocols.
  3. Regular safety audits are conducted to ensure compliance with safety rules.
  4. Personal protective equipment is provided to employees and its use is mandatory in hazardous areas.
  5. Safety is integrated into the design and construction of all projects.
  6. Examples of safety rules include wearing hard hats, safety harnesses, and safety shoes on construction sites.
  7. L&T also has a safety committee that oversees safety practices and makes recommendations for improvement.

What is the slump range for boom pressure?

slump range for boom pressure { 160 to 210 mm }

What is epoxy flooring and what are the steps it involved?

Epoxy flooring is a durable and long-lasting flooring solution made of epoxy resin and hardener.

  1. The surface is prepared by cleaning and etching
  2. The epoxy mixture is applied using a roller or squeegee
  3. A second coat may be applied after the first coat has cured
  4. The surface is left to cure for 24-72 hours
  5. Optional: a topcoat may be applied for added durability and shine

What are the frequency for casting concrete cube?

Concrete cubes are casted at regular intervals to ensure quality control.

  1. The frequency of casting concrete cube depends on the project specifications and requirements.
  2. Generally, cubes are casted at 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days after pouring the concrete.
  3. The cubes are tested for compressive strength to ensure the concrete meets the required standards.
  4. If the cubes fail to meet the required strength, corrective measures are taken to improve the quality of the concrete.

What is the deviation in compressive strength of concrete cube?

The deviation in compressive strength of concrete cube depends on various factors.

  1. The deviation can be affected by factors such as the quality of materials used, curing conditions, testing procedures, and age of concrete.
  2. The standard deviation of compressive strength for a set of 6 cubes is generally considered to be around 5-10% of the average strength.
  3. The deviation can also be influenced by the size and shape of the cube, as well as the location from where the sample is taken.
  4. It is important to ensure that the testing is done in accordance with the relevant standards and procedures to minimize the deviation.

Which grade concrete need for paving concrete

The grade of concrete for paving depends on the traffic load and weather conditions.

  • The minimum grade of concrete for paving is M20.
  • For heavy traffic areas, M30 or higher grade concrete is recommended.
  • In areas with extreme weather conditions, air-entrained concrete is used to prevent cracking.
  • The mix design of concrete should be optimized for durability and skid resistance.
  • Proper curing and jointing techniques should be followed to ensure longevity of the pavement.

What items to be check during formwork inspection

During formwork inspection, various items need to be checked to ensure safety and quality of the structure.

  • Check the formwork design and ensure it meets the specifications
  • Inspect the formwork materials for any damage or defects
  • Check the formwork supports and ensure they are stable and properly placed
  • Inspect the formwork ties and braces to ensure they are secure and properly placed
  • Check the formwork for proper alignment and levelness
  • Inspect the formwork for any bulges, warping, or other deformities
  • Check the formwork for any leaks or seepage
  • Ensure that the formwork is properly cleaned and free of debris before pouring concrete

what Points to be considered while rebar fixing

Points to consider while rebar fixing

  • Ensure proper spacing and alignment of rebars as per design
  • Use appropriate binding wire to tie the rebars together
  • Ensure proper lap length of rebars as per design
  • Ensure proper cover to the rebars to prevent corrosion
  • Ensure proper anchorage of rebars at the ends
  • Ensure proper placement of rebars in beams, columns, slabs, etc.
  • Ensure proper curing of concrete after rebar fixing

Types of concrete and testing methods

There are various types of concrete used in construction, and each type requires different testing methods.

  • Types of concrete include plain, reinforced, pre-stressed, lightweight, and high-strength.
  • Testing methods include slump test, compressive strength test, flexural strength test, and water absorption test.
  • Slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete, compressive strength test measures the strength of hardened concrete, flexural strength test measures the ability of concrete to resist bending, and water absorption test measures the ability of concrete to absorb water.
  • Other testing methods include air content test, unit weight test, and maturity test.

What the difference between Dry mortar and Wet mortar

Dry mortar is a mixture of cement, sand, and additives in dry form, while wet mortar is a mixture of the same ingredients in wet form.

  • Dry mortar is pre-mixed and requires only the addition of water before use.
  • Wet mortar is mixed on-site and can be adjusted for consistency as needed.
  • Dry mortar is easier to store and transport than wet mortar.
  • Wet mortar has a shorter shelf life than dry mortar.
  • Dry mortar is commonly used for small projects and repairs, while wet mortar is used for larger construction projects.

How many length of full length TMT Bar

The length of a full length TMT bar varies depending on the manufacturer and the country.

  • The standard length of a TMT bar in India is 12 meters.
  • In the United States, the standard length is 40 feet or 12.2 meters.
  • The length of a TMT bar can also be customized according to the requirements of a project.
  • The weight of a TMT bar is directly proportional to its length.
  • The longer the TMT bar, the higher the transportation cost.

What is the time period of open bag cement ?

Open bag cement has a shelf life of about 3 months.

  • Open bag cement should be used within 3 months of its manufacturing date.
  • After 3 months, the cement may lose its strength and effectiveness.
  • It is important to check the manufacturing date before using open bag cement.
  • Storing cement in a cool, dry place can help extend its shelf life.

 What do you understand by segregation?

Segregation is defined as a process of filtering cement & sand separately from the concrete mixture. In other words, segregation is caused due to vibration between materials forming a concrete.

One material being high in weight & one being less tend to be uneven while in a liquid state. The heavier material gets settled at the bottom of the concrete & lighter material moves on top.

Explain the cavitation process in pipes & drains?

Usually due to the air bubble formation within the fluids usually because of low-pressure conditions get even lower than the saturation pressure is defined as the cavitation process. This creates a potentially damaging situation to the durability of pipes.

What do you understand by soil analysis?

Soil analysis is defined as a process of soil testing to determine nutrients & elements which are embedded within that particular soil sample.

What do you mean by concrete curing? What are the methods used for concrete curing?

Concrete curing is the process of maintaining the right temperature & apt moisture level for the recently placed concrete. This process is done to the wet concrete to ensure its drying process takes less time & maximizes concrete strength.

Some of the common methods used in concrete curing are water sprays, ponding, curing compounds, steam curation.

What do you understand by slump tests?

Slump Tests are usually done to measure the consistency of the fresh concrete after it’s placed. It also measures the workability of fresh concrete.

What is the software used in civil engineering?

AutoCAD and 3D Max are the most popular software used in Civil Engineering. These are helpful in making various high-tech presentations, reports, billing purposes. All the designs, modeling, design, architectural drawing, Auto-desk 2D and 3D designs can be successfully made with the help of this two software.

How do you calculate the unit weight of concrete?

To find the weight of the concrete, multiply the length, height, and width of the area where the concrete is to be filled. Then you will get the volume of the place or the volume of the concrete to be used. To get the weight of the concrete in pounds, multiply the volume which we have got in cubic feet by 143.38 pounds/feet^3.

What is the crank length in the slab?

Minimum length of a crank is 300 mm.

The formula of Crank length = (d1+d2+5) *10mm where d1 is the diameter of smaller bar and d2 is the diameter of the largest bar.

Also, the slope of the crank is 1:10 (one of the common civil engineering interview questions.)

What is the strength of cement?

The cement’s strength is tested on hardened Cement-Sand mortar’s cubes, and these are prepared out of the cement which has a strength of 53MPa. It is derived from 53 Grade OPC Cement giving 28-days of compressive strength of the cement. It is one of the most common civil engineering interview questions.

How is the strength of cement measured?

The measurement is done after the curing process has taken place for 7 days or 28 days. The load should be applied slowly at the rate of 140 kg/cm2 per minute until the Specimens fails. We get the compressive strength of the concrete or the cement at the load failure divided by the specimen’s area.

What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

According to IS 456 : 2000, M refers Mix and 25 refers the characteristic compressive.

Strength of concrete cube of 150mmX150mmX150 mm tested at the end of 28 days should be minimum 25 N/

 What is the maximum allowable fresh concrete temperature until used as per ASTM ?

32 OC

what are the skills required to become an architect ?

  1. Conceptual understanding of designing models
  2. Basic knowledge of computer and architect related software programs
  3. Designing 3D models
  4. Engineering ability
  5. Business aptitude
  6. Legal knowledge

What is guniting ?

It is a process in which mixture of cement & sand in proportion of 1:3 is shooted on concrete surface with the help of cement gun under pressure of 2 to 3 kg/cm2. It is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

For filling cracks in masonry structures, the type of bitumen used, is

Plastic bitumen

  What is the bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF) – Explain.

A bending moment is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or moment is applied to the element causing the element to bend. The most common or simplest structural element subjected to bending moments is the beam.

Shear force is the force in the beam acting perpendicular to its longitudinal (x) axis. For design purposes, the beam’s ability to resist shear force is more important than its ability to resist an axial force. Axial force is the force in the beam acting parallel to the longitudinal axis.

 What is the process of covering of concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall ?


A wall constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling, is known as

Retaining wall

What is the minimum curing period?

IS 456 – 2000 recommends that curing duration of concrete must be at least 7 days in case of Ordinary Portland Cement, at least 10 days for concrete with Mineral admixtures. It also recommends that the curing duration should not be less than 10 days for concrete of OPC exposed to dry and hot weather conditions and 14 days for concrete with mineral admixtures in hot and dry weather.

What is the minimum weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis as per ASTM C136 ?

300 g

How many hours should CBR samples be soaked ?

96 Hrs

What is a bearing capacity of soil?

Bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground by the foundation of the structure.

What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb, also known as air pocket, is nothing but the air voids in concrete. It is usually formed during concrete casting.