Civil Engineer 120 most asked interview Question Part -3

1.    Why Are You Interested in This Position?

What made you apply for the job? This is usually an opening question that interviewers ask to act as a foundation for the questions to follow. It may also seek to ascertain whether you are a good fit for the job right from the start. Be smart and sell yourself.

Sample Answer

I am an experienced civil engineer with vast knowledge of infrastructural designs and maintenance. The job description for this position, therefore, fits my expertise. I also believe that I have all it takes to excellently perform the roles that this position outlines and increase value to your company.

2.      What Are the Roles of a Civil Engineer?

Do you understand your job description? Civil engineers are different from other engineers, given their unique roles in construction. When answering this question, you can either use the provided job description or list some of your roles in your former workplace.

Sample Answer

Civil engineers are mainly tasked with planning, designing, and overseeing the construction and maintenance of different structures such as airports, roads, and power plants. They are generally grouped into two: consultants and contracting engineers. The former work in office settings where they primarily plan and come up with the necessary project design outlines, whereas the latter implement these designs during construction. (You can include other roles. However, do not be too wordy)

3.      What Are the Qualities That a Civil Engineer Require to Be Effective?

Every job has its unique set of qualities, even though some may cut across. While answering this question, think about some of the qualities or traits that have played a significant role in your career as a civil engineer. This will help you mention only role-specific attributes.

Sample Answer

A civil engineer should be an excellent decision-maker and problem solver, given the nature of their job. They must have incredible organizational and writing skills to handle large work volumes. One must also have good leadership and communication skills since they are at times tasked with leadership roles. Other skills are Math skills and creativity.

4.      What Is the Main Challenge That You Faced During Your Last Role? How Did You Manage It?

Every job has its fair share of challenges, which you are expected to overcome independently or solve with the help of your employer. This question seeks to understand whether you are a good problem solver who can think outside the box to come up with solutions or not. Convince the interviewer that you are the right person for the job.

Sample Answer

The main challenge that I faced during my last role was dealing with clients who suggested taking shortcuts to finish the projects faster. Some also offered alternative means and ideas that would see them save money. I had to stand my ground and convince them that it was unethical and damaging to my company’s reputation. Most of them understood. For those who did not, I referred them to senior management.

5.      Describe Your Daily Routine

What do you usually do as a civil engineer? The reply to this question depends on whether you are a contracting engineer or a consultant. All in all, pick out a busy day and describe it to the interviewer. Also, do not mention irrelevant activities such as dropping children to school.

Sample Answer

My day starts early and how it proceeds depends on the issues that need to be tackled. I am a contracting engineer, and therefore, most of my day is spent on the construction site. I report early and hold meetings with the workers and supervisor to discuss what needs to be done or improved. I then ensure that all safety requirements have been met before commencing work. I will then guide them on the building of the structure and supervise whatever activity they undertake. When called upon, I may report to the office to brief senior management on our progress and even prepare reports when needed.

6.      Briefly Describe Your Experience

The interviewer wants you to summarize your experience in civil engineering. Be wise to mention a few unique roles in some of the places you have worked, the positions you have held, and a few other things that may bring out the value in you as an employee.

Sample Answer

This is my sixth year as a civil engineer. I started as a junior engineer working under a team of senior engineers. I was tasked with relatively lighter tasks, such as ensuring that all the safety requirements were adhered to before construction commences. In my third year, I was made a lead engineer tasked with overseeing a team of other engineers. I have since held interim management and supervisory roles, which have helped me in this career.

7.      What Is the Right Strategy and Mindset Required for This Role?

Every job requires a unique way of working and perspective. This question is usually asked to ascertain whether you are the perfect fit for a given job. We advise that you mention a strategy and mindset that has seen you succeed in this field. Be wise to mention only job-specific strategies and mindset.

Sample Answer

I have realized that the best strategy in this job is to prioritize teamwork. A company cannot successfully execute engineering projects without the input of different parties. As a civil engineer, I have realized that making everyone in the construction team feel special gives them the push and morale needed to post excellent results.

As for the right mindset, one needs to be result-oriented. The final work judges an engineer’s worth. We must, therefore, focus on the last results when going about their roles.

8.      Mention a Challenge That You Foresee in This Role

Always ensure that you have conducted a level of research before stepping into the interview room to know some of the challenges faced by professionals. When answering this question, make sure that you are honest with the interviewer.

Sample Answer

I do not always term them as challenges but small obstacles that we can easily overcome. I have gone through your company’s work policy, and I am glad that you have curbed some of the problems we as civil engineers face. However, I have realized that you have a long chain of command regarding site decision-making, which can be pretty inconvenient if faster decisions need to be made. I am sure that you have your reasons for such policy and would be willing to adhere to it, but we can always work on a different means in case of anything.

9.      How Do You Stay Motivated at Work?

This is a common question in interviews that seeks to understand where you get your push from. When answering such a question, do not mention the extrinsic rewards that the job offers, such as a good salary or promotions. It would help if you used this opportunity to sell yourself.

Sample Answer

I am passionate about structures. I always looked at large buildings in awe when growing up and even dreamt of owning one. Therefore, whenever I am tasked with a construction project, the passion deep within acts as a fuel that sees it to completion. I also love working with different people and getting to know more about them and their differences. My job brings me so much joy that I am always motivated.

10. In Your Experience, What Are Some of the Problems That Using Pumping for Concrete Work Brings?

This is a technical question assessing your experience in a specific area of civil engineering. Make sure that you are eloquent and straight to the point. Also, answer this question confidently to convince the interviewer that you indeed understand your area of expertise.

Sample Answer

The main problems that pumping causes in concrete work are segregation and bleeding. This is usually caused by the force exerted by the pumps. However, these problems can be corrected by increasing the amount of cement to enhance cohesion. Also, properly selecting aggregate grading can help improve the pumping ability of concrete, thus preventing these two problems. ( You can start by explaining how the pumps lead to these problems. Just make sure that you use the correct vocabulary)

11. Why Did You Choose to Pursue Civil Engineering?

This is a common question in lots of interviews regardless of the profession. Your interviewer wants to know what inspired you to join this field. Is it the money or a burning passion for structures? Keep in mind that there is no correct answer as people have unique reasons for their decisions in life. However, do not mention any material reason just to be safe.

Sample Answer

I come from a family where people love Math. Both my parents were math teachers, and therefore, I grew up seeing them solve mathematical equations and lots of puzzles. My dad always urged me to think creatively when tackling an issue and even inspired in me a quizzical mind that is constantly exploring how different things are structured and their working mechanism. I decided to pursue civil engineering when I realized that it aligns with everything I had grown up seeing.

12. Why Do You Want to Work for Us?

Just like the previous one, this is also a common question in interviews. Your answer will reveal whether you have researched the company and can pick a few pros that excite you. We suggest that you bring out the details that make the company different from others and also show that you have researched before rendering your application when tackling this question.

Sample Answer

I want to be part of your organization because of your fantastic reputation. You have been lauded repeatedly for your efficiency and excellent work culture, which allows employees to grow. Most of your former employees still speak proudly of this company even in their new places of work, which makes me believe that you will better use my skills and experiences here.

13. What Is Your Number One Priority as a Civil Engineer?

This question seeks to reveal just how well you are aware of some of the essential job qualifications. If possible, craft your answer in a way that captured the company’s values and mission statement. Also, make sure that you are sincere when giving your answer.

Sample Answer

As a civil engineer, my utmost priority is making sure that my designs are safe for both the public and the environment. I believe that the health of the public and the environment come first regardless of the situation. I also prioritize the safety of my construction team.  This not only does justice to my reputation but also gives me the fulfillment that I need in this job.

14. What’s Your Secret? How Do You Ensure That Your Work Environment Is Safe?

Even though some civil engineers work primarily in office settings, others (which should include you) create time to supervise ongoing field projects. Here, the interviewer wants to know if you understand the importance of construction site safety and whether you can protect the company and employees from accidents and lawsuits by adhering to it.

Sample Answer

One of the things that I treasure the most as a civil engineer is the safety of my construction team while working on a project. I prefer leading by example. Therefore, whenever I visit a site, I always ensure that I am in the proper safety clothing to set the pace for the other employees. I then confirm whether everybody has their PPEs on and that all the tools are safely tucked away. If the construction team lacks the proper protective equipment, I will stop the construction until that is sorted. Lastly, I make sure that all the construction guidelines in The Occupational Safety and Health Administration Directive are followed to the latter.

15. What Would You Do If a Completed Construction Causes an Accident?

This question seeks to reveal your character and whether you are the right candidate for the job. While answering this, make sure that you give a straightforward answer and are as sincere as possible. Also, show that you value your work ethic and would know what to do in such a situation.

Sample Answer

Given that the liability in such a scenario is an ethical issue, I will inform the upper management swiftly since the company is obligated to be held accountable. Informing the upper management also serves as a lesson for the company, who will be more careful to avoid similar future errors that can cost its reputation and make it short-lived.

16. What Is Your Relationship with Clients?

The interviewer wants to know how you interact with clients. This question also seeks to reveal whether you can deal well with clients with different desires and levels of tolerance. Convince the interviewer that you can communicate well and maintain a happy and satisfying relationship.

Sample Answer

I believe that the client is one of the most important parties in the entire construction process. They play a significant role right from the planning stage into the design, construction, maintenance, and operation phases. They must therefore be held high and their input respected.

I have managed to acquire several skills given my years of experience in this field that helps me relate well with clients. I have the patience and sincerity required when interacting with clients. I am also knowledgeable in this field and can therefore sustain discussions with clients.

17. In Your Opinion, What Is the Biggest Challenge That Civil Engineers Face?

The interviewer is testing your mastery of the industry. Are you aware of the challenges that civil engineers grapple with? Ensure that you are honest with your potential employer, who will probably listen for clues on how you will resolve the conflicts.

Sample Answer

Having been in this field for seven years, I can confidently say that the biggest challenge we face as civil engineers face is dealing with clients who try pushing us to take shorter routes to save time and money. Some believe that their alternatives are the best and do not want to be convinced that this is usually a dangerous and unethical means of structural construction. Gaining the cooperation of such parties takes lots of effort. At one point, I even turned down a client with the consent of my company to protect my reputation and integrity.

18. Could You Explain What Bending Movement and Shear Force Are?

This is a technical question. The interviewer is trying to assess just how good you are at your job. When answering this question, make sure that you leave them convinced that you understand your work as a civil engineer. Also, make sure that your answer is straightforward and can be understood by everyone on the interview panel.

Sample Answer

A bending movement refers to the reaction that a structural element undergoes on the application of an external force or a moment causing it to bend. The most common element that undergoes this phenomenon is the beam.

The sheer force refers to the force in the beam that acts perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis. The ability of a beam to resist this force counts more than its ability to withstand an axial force, which acts parallel to its longitudinal axis.

19. What Is the Minimum Curing Period?

Like the previous one, this is also a technical question that seeks to reveal whether you understand your craft. Curing is a necessary process when working on concrete and may have fatal consequences if not done right. Show the interviewer that you are knowledgeable of the curing process.

Sample Answer

There are different curing durations depending on what has been used to build the concrete. For ordinary Portland Cement, IS 456-2000 Recommends that the curing duration of the concrete should not be less than seven days. This duration should not be less than ten days for Mineral admixtures and OPC concrete exposed to dry and hot weather conditions. For concrete with mineral admixtures in hot and dry weather, this duration should not be less than 14 days. (You can shed more light on these. However, make sure that the durations are well captured)

 What is the Volume of a 50 kg bag of cement?

The volume of a 50 kg bag of cement can vary depending on the density of the cement. However, on average, a 50 kg bag of cement has a volume of about 0.035 cubic meters (m³) or 35 liters. This volume is often used as a standard measure for cement in construction projects.

20. In Residential Buildings, Average Value of Stair Width?

In residential buildings, the average value of stair width is typically between 36 to 48 inches (91 to 122 cm). This width is considered standard and allows for safe and comfortable passage up and down the stairs.

21. The Slope of the Stair Should not  Exceed.

The slope of a stair should not exceed 50 degrees or 2:1 ratio, which means that for every two units of horizontal distance, the rise or vertical height should not exceed one unit. This is to ensure that the stair is safe and comfortable to use, and that it meets building codes and standards.

22. Minimum diameter of steel in Column.

As per IS (Indian Standards) code, the minimum diameter of steel bars in a column is 12 millimeters (mm). This is to ensure that the steel reinforcement is strong enough to withstand the compressive forces exerted on the column and to prevent buckling or failure.

23. Standard Size of Brick?

In India, the standard size of a brick is 9 inches (length) x 4.5 inches (width) x 3 inches (height) or 228 mm x 114 mm x 75 mm. This size is commonly known as the “nominal size” of a brick, which includes the thickness of the mortar joint used in construction.

24. What is the Unit Weight of RCC?

The unit weight of RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) varies depending on its constituents and density. On average, the unit weight of RCC ranges between 23 to 25 kilonewtons per cubic meter (kN/m³), which is equivalent to approximately 2,300 to 2,500 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) or 143 to 156 pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³).

25.  One Acre = ____________Sq. ft.

One acre is equal to 43,560 square feet. This is a standard unit of measurement used in land surveying and real estate transactions, especially in countries like the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. One acre is also equivalent to 4,046.86 square meters, 0.4047 hectares, or 0.00156 square miles.

26. What is the Full Form of UTM?

In the context of steel testing, UTM stands for “Universal Testing Machine”. A UTM is a versatile and powerful testing equipment that is used to measure the tensile and compressive strength, yield strength, elongation, and other mechanical properties of different materials, including metals, plastics, and composites.

27. Cement Expire After?

There is no specific expiration date for cement as per IS code. However, cement manufacturers recommend using cement within three to six months from the date of manufacture to ensure its optimal quality and effectiveness.

28. One square meter = _________ Sq. ft?

One square meter = 10.7639 square feet.

29. What is the unit weight of 25 mm Steel Bars

The unit weight of 25 mm steel bars is approximately 3.85 kg/meter or 0.118 kg/foot.

30. One Hectare = _______Acres

One hectare is equal to approximately 2.47105 acres.

31. One Gallon = ________Liters

One gallon is equal to approximately 3.785 liters.

32. One kilonewton is equal to _________ kilograms

One kilonewton is equal to approximately 101.97 kilograms.

33. One Tonne is equal to _________ kilograms

One tonne is equal to 1000 kilograms.

34. Maximum Free fall of concrete allowed is______?

The maximum free fall of concrete allowed is typically 1.5 to 2 meters (5 to 6.5 feet), as per standard industry practices. However, this may vary based on specific project requirements and conditions.

35. Instrument used for level work on a construction site?

The instrument used for level work on a construction site is called a “level” or a “spirit level”. There are different types of levels, including the dumpy level, digital level, and laser level, among others, each with their own advantages and limitations.

36. Minimum Bars in Circular Column Should be_______

The minimum number of bars in a circular column should be 6, as per standard industry practices. However, this may vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

37. What is the Full Form of AAC?

The full form of AAC is “Autoclaved Aerated Concrete”.

38. What is the Full Form of NDT?

The full form of NDT is “Non-Destructive Testing”.

39. What is the Full Form of JCB?

The full form of JCB is “Joseph Cyril Bamford”, named after the British industrialist who founded the company.

40. Which Test is conducted to determine the bearing capacity of Soil?

The test conducted to determine the bearing capacity of soil is called a “Plate Load Test” or a “Plate Bearing Test”. This test involves loading a circular or square steel plate onto the soil surface and measuring the settlement or deformation of the plate under a given load, which can be used to estimate the bearing capacity of the soil.

41. Ring and ball tests are conducted on which construction material?

BiRing and ball tests are conducted on bituminous materials, such as asphalt and tar, which are commonly used in road construction and maintenance. These tests are used to determine the softening point of the bituminous material, which is an important parameter for assessing its suitability and performance in various applications.

42. Minimum hook length as per IS Code?

Ans: As per IS Code, the minimum hook length for a 90-degree bend in reinforcement bars is 9 times the diameter of the bar for bars up to 32 mm in diameter, and 12 times the diameter of the bar for bars greater than 32 mm in diameter. However, this may vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

43. What is the extra length in Bent bars?

The extra length in bent bars, also known as the “bar allowance”, is the additional length of the reinforcing bar required to accommodate the bending and bending-out processes during fabrication. This length may vary depending on the specific bar bending schedule and the bending radius used, and is typically specified in the project specifications or bar bending schedule.

44. What is the Least Count of Dumpy?

The least count of a dumpy level, also known as the minimum graduation or reading, depends on the precision of the instrument and the scale used. In general, the least count of a dumpy level is typically between 5 mm. However, some models may have a higher or lower least count depending on the specific design and manufacturer.

45. What is Full of EGL?

Existing ground level.

46. A First Class Brick Should Absorb Water More than?

A first-class brick should absorb water up to 20% of its dry weight, as per standard industry practices. This means that if the dry weight of a brick is 2 kg, it should be able to absorb up to 0.4 kg (or 400 grams) of water. The water absorption capacity of bricks is an important parameter for assessing their quality and suitability for various construction applications.

47. Number of Bricks used in 1 Cubic meter of Brickwork?

The number of bricks used in 1 cubic meter of brickwork depends on the size of the bricks and the thickness of the mortar joint. For standard size bricks (190mm x 90mm x 90mm) and a standard thickness of 10mm for the mortar joint, the number of bricks required is approximately 500 bricks. However, this can vary based on the specific design requirements and conditions of the project.

48. The Normal Consistency of  Portland Cement?

The normal consistency of Portland cement is the percentage of water required to produce a cement paste that has a standard thickness and can be used for testing. As per the IS 4031 (Part 4) – 1988 standard, the normal consistency of Portland cement is defined as the percentage of water by weight that will produce a cement paste with a standard consistency of 30±1mm when tested using the Vicat apparatus. The normal consistency for Portland cement typically ranges from 26% to 33%, depending on the specific type and grade of cement.

49. The Expansion in Portland cement is tested by…

The expansion in Portland cement is tested by using the Le-Chatelier apparatus, which is a small, specialized device used for measuring the expansion of cement during the setting process.

50. According to IS Code, Full Strength of Concrete is achieved after?

As per IS 456:2000, the Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete, the full strength of concrete is generally achieved after 28 days of curing under standard conditions. However, it’s worth noting that the rate of strength gain varies depending on several factors such as the type of cement used, the water-cement ratio, curing conditions, and the presence of additives or admixtures. It’s important to consider these factors when determining the expected strength of concrete at different ages.

51. What is the Volume of 1 bag of cement?

The volume of 1 bag of cement in india is 0.035 m³

52. Minimum Grade of Concrete Used For RCC?

The minimum grade of concrete used for RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) varies depending on the structural requirements and the environmental conditions of the project. In general, for most structural elements such as beams, columns, slabs, and foundations, the minimum grade of concrete used is M20 as per IS 456:2000, which corresponds to a mix ratio of 1:1.5:3 (cement:sand:aggregate).

53. Cement Expire After?

In general, cement should be used within three months from the date of manufacture to ensure optimal performance. After this period, the quality and strength of the cement may gradually decline, which can affect the overall strength and durability of the concrete.

54. What is the Full Form of DPR?

The full form of DPR is Detailed Project Report. It’s a comprehensive document that outlines the various aspects of a project, including its objectives, scope, feasibility, budget, timeline, risks, and other important details. DPR is an essential document in the project planning and management process as it helps stakeholders to evaluate the feasibility and viability of a project and make informed decisions. The report is typically prepared by a team of experts, including engineers, architects, financial analysts, and other relevant professionals, and serves as a blueprint for the project execution.

55. What is the initial and final setting time for cement?

According to the Indian Standard Code IS 4031, the initial setting time for cement should be a minimum of 30 minutes, and the final setting time should be a maximum of 600 minutes (10 hours).

51. What are the Responsibilities of a Construction Manager in the project?

Responsibilities of a Construction Manager for overseeing and managing all aspects of a construction project. Some of the key responsibilities of a construction manager include:

  1. Planning and organizing the project schedule and budget
  2. Coordinating and managing resources, including labor, equipment, and materials
  3. Ensuring compliance with building codes and safety regulations
  4. Hiring and managing subcontractors and other project team members
  5. Communicating with stakeholders, including clients, architects, engineers, and other project participants
  6. Monitoring and controlling project progress, including quality control and risk management
  7. Resolving issues and conflicts that arise during the project
  8. Providing regular reports and updates to stakeholders on project status and progress
  9. Ensuring timely completion of the project within budget and according to specifications
  10. Maintaining project documentation and records for future reference.

52. What can be the potential risk factors for workers on the construction site?

Following are the risk factors for workers, for not following the safety protocols:

  • Risk to fall from height
  • Failure Scaffold and Trench
  • Change of Electric shock and arc blast
  • Motion Injuries

53. What you know about Hybrid Foundation

A hybrid foundation is a type of foundation that combines two or more types of foundation systems to provide the desired level of support for a structure. This type of foundation is often used in situations where the soil conditions are complex or variable, and a single foundation system may not be suitable.

54. What are the different ways of demolition?

Demolition is commonly done through Hydro-demolition, Dismantling, and Pressure Bursting.

55. Explain Floating Slab Foundation?

A floating slab foundation, also known as a monolithic slab foundation, is a type of foundation used in construction where a concrete slab is poured directly onto the ground without any separate footings or foundation walls. This type of foundation is commonly used for smaller structures like sheds, garages, and small homes..

56. Explain what is flashing?

Flashing is a construction technique used to prevent water from entering a building at joints where different materials meet, such as roofs, walls, and chimneys. It involves installing thin, impervious materials, such as metal or plastic, over the joints to create a barrier that redirects water away from the building

57. State different types of roof systems?

There are several types of roof systems commonly used in construction. Some of the most popular ones include flat roofs, pitched roofs, gable roofs, hip roofs, mansard roofs, shed roofs, gambrel roofs, and butterfly roofs.

58. What can be the phase inspections done by local authorities while construction?

Various inspections during the construction include,

  • Inspection of Site
  • First or pre-construction Inspection
  • Inspection of the Foundation before placing concrete
  • Framing inspection
  • Insulation inspection is done after the insulation
  • Lastly, the final inspection is done after the completion of the construction

59. State some of the Inspections, done after the completion of construction?

Listed are some of the checking or inspection done on the exterior side of the construction is,

  • Storm sewer system
  • Safety provision (terraces, porches, areaways)
  • Accessory buildings
  • Drainage
  • Retaining wall
  • Compaction of fill material
  • Caulking at opening
  • Pavement edging
  • Protection against moisture penetration
  • Design of dwelling structure

60. Alternate Bid is______?

An alternate bid is a proportion stated in the bid to be subtracted or summed from the base bid amount. Alternate materials or methods of construction force Alternate bids are to be proposed.

61. Explain the Order of Change request?

AAn order of change request is a formal process used to document and track any changes to the scope of a construction project. The process typically involves submitting a formal request for change, which includes a detailed description of the proposed changes, the reasons for the changes, and any potential impacts on the project timeline or budget.

62. What are the components covered within Construction Cost?

Construction cost typically includes the cost of materials, labor, equipment, permits, design and engineering fees, site preparation, excavation, utilities, foundation work, framing, roofing, insulation, windows and doors, electrical, plumbing, HVAC, finishes, landscaping, and any other necessary costs associated with building or renovating a structure. It is important to carefully consider and manage these costs to ensure the project stays within budget.

63. What does the Critical Path Method (C.P.M) mean?

The Critical Path Method (CPM) is a project management tool used to schedule, organize, and track the activities involved in a project. It determines the longest path of activities in a project that must be completed on time to ensure the project’s completion by the deadline. It helps identify which activities are critical and require close monitoring to avoid project delays.

64. Explain the term is Demising Wall?

Demising wall act as a boundary that separates your land or house from a neighbor’s house or property.

The Significance of the labor and material payment bond is if the contractor fails to pay for all labor, materials, equipment, or services in accordance with the contract, he or she will guarantee payment to the owner under this bond. Hence It is a bond between the owner and the main contractor.

66. Explain what is progress payment?

A progress payment is a payment done by the owner to the contractor in parts after the completion of a certain amount of construction. Technically it is a difference between the completed work and material stored and a pre-determined schedule of values or unit costs.

67. What is a Structural Frame or System?

Beams and columns form load-bearing assemblies on a foundation called Structural frames. However, the columns and beams are mostly fabricated off-site and can be assembled on-site.

68. Explain the concept of “release of lien“?

Documentation executed by any individual or firm in the availability of supplying labor, material, or professional service on a project, which will release its mechanic’s lien against the project property.

69. What is an Architect-Prepared Contract?

An Architect-Prepared Contract is a legally binding agreement between an owner and a contractor that is drafted by an architect. This contract specifies the terms and conditions of the construction project, including the scope of work, the payment schedule, and the responsibilities of the parties involved. It ensures that the project runs smoothly and that everyone involved understands their obligations.

70. What does 1/8 on the architect ruler indicate?

The 1/8 measurement on an architect ruler typically represents one foot on a scaled drawing. In other words, if a line measures 1 inch on the scaled drawing, it represents 8 feet in real life. The 1/8 measurement is commonly used in architectural and engineering drawings to create accurate representations of structures and buildings.

71. What software programs can be used by architects?

The list of software programs is as follows:

  • AutoCAD
  • 3DS Max
  • Sketchup
  • Photoshop
  • Adobe creative suites
  • Microsoft Office
  • Digital Media
  • Their use is based on the type of architectural project.

72. Explain what are the skills required for a good architect?

A good architect requires a combination of technical, creative, and interpersonal skills. Technical skills include knowledge of building materials, construction techniques, and building codes. Creative skills include design and visualization abilities. Interpersonal skills include effective communication, collaboration, and leadership. Additionally, a good architect should have attention to detail, problem-solving skills, and the ability to manage projects effectively.

73. What things do architects have to take care of before starting any project?

Before starting any project, architects have to take care of several things. They have to analyze the site and the surrounding environment, research and understand the local building codes and regulations, and determine the project requirements and goals of the clients. They also have to consider the budget, sustainability, and accessibility aspects of the project. Additionally, they need to communicate effectively with the project team, including engineers, contractors, and consultants.

74What are the different dimension tools in CAD?

For accessing CAD dimension tools one must go to CAD>Dimensions. The wide range of dimension tools is listed below:

  • Manual dimensions
  • Interior dimensions
  • Point-to-point dimensions
  • Display temporary dimensions moving objects using dimensions
  • Auto exterior dimensions
  • Auto interior dimensions
  • End-to-end dimensions

75. What are the most helpful and best engineering Apps?

Some of the best apps for civil engineering are,

  • Sketchbook
  • Photoshop Express
  • Flipboard
  • Evernote
  • Dropbox
  • Instagram
  • Houzz
  • AutoCAD Ws
  • Magic Plan

76. What are Wooden Shingles?

Wooden shingles are thin, tapered pieces of wood used to cover roofs or walls of buildings. They are typically made from cedar, redwood, or pine, and can be stained or painted to match the building’s exterior. Wooden shingles have been used as a roofing material for centuries and offer a natural, rustic look. However, they require regular maintenance and are not as durable as other roofing materials.

77. What could be the common problems that architect has to tackle?

Common problems faced by architecture are,

  • The client would sometimes not be able to know what they want that is when the architect will face problems in designing the structure.
  • When budget is limited
  • When the requirement of the customer is custom design at standard design cost
  • When an architect is provided with less space to work

78. What is the standard roof height like to be?

The standard height of the roof can be one or two stories tall. If you do not need to make the roof taller and yet you won’t make it look bigger from the outside, you can use a mansard roof containing multiple floors. The pitch is adjusted so as to give a bigger look.

79. List the types of roofs used?

Types of Roofs are as listed below,

  • Gull wind roof
  • Mansard roof
  • Bell cast roof
  • Sawtooth roof
  • Monitor roof, etc.
  • Half hipped roof
  • Dutch gable roof
  • Skillion roof
  • Gambrel roof

80. List out the problems one might be facing while having a Cantilever balcony?

Cantilever balconies can pose several problems, including structural issues due to inadequate building support. Safety concerns are another issue, as the lack of support on one side can make the balcony more susceptible to movement and pose a risk to people using it. Maintenance and upkeep are also essential to prevent issues like rot or rusting.

  • Excess amount of deflection or bounce
  • Weakness of the deck structure is liable
  • Water damage to the interior of the house along with rotting is caused.
  • Unevenness within the house’s interior
  • Balcony for gardening or other purposes is not safe as it is not designed to lift excess amount of weight and may result in earlier failure.

81. For what type of building Built-in balconies are suitable and what are their pros?

Built-in balconies are suitable for a range of buildings, including high-rise apartments, modern homes, and condos. These balconies are seamlessly integrated into the building’s exterior and provide residents with extended outdoor living space. The pros of built-in balconies include enhanced aesthetics, increased living space, and privacy, as they offer a private outdoor area.

82. Distinguish between Built Area and Super Built-up Area?

Built-up area refers to the total floor space covered by a building, including all rooms, corridors, and common areas. On the other hand, the super built-up area includes the built-up area along with the proportionate share of common areas like stairs, lobby, and lift, which are shared by all residents of the building. The super built-up area is usually calculated as a percentage of the built-up area and is used to determine the cost of a property.

83. What is the ideal size of the living room ranging from small to large?

1. Very small size living room= 7 x 10 feet

2. Small living room= 10x 13 feet (for two 2 seater sofas)

3. Medium living room= 12×18 feet (for 3 Seater sofa)

4. Large living room= 15×20 feet (for 4 seaters or 5 seater sofa)

84. What Do You Understand by M25 Concrete?

As per the Indian Standard code (IS 456:2000), M25 concrete is a mix design of concrete that has a characteristic compressive strength of 25 MPa (Megapascals) or 3626 psi (Pounds per square inch) at 28 days. The mix ratio for M25 concrete is 1:1:2, which means one part cement, one part sand, and two parts aggregate (crushed stone or gravel) are used to create the concrete mix.

85. Maximum temperature that is allowable for fresh concrete used according to the ASTM?

According to ASTM C1064/C1064M, the maximum allowable temperature for fresh concrete during delivery and placement is 90°F (32°C). If the temperature of the concrete exceeds this limit, it can cause rapid evaporation of the mixing water, which can lead to a reduction in the strength and durability of the concrete. To prevent this, measures such as cooling the mixing water or using chilled aggregates may be necessary.

86. What is Grunting?

Grunting is a term used in construction to describe a noise or vibration that occurs when a pile is driven into the ground. It is caused by the resistance of the soil against the pile, which creates a sudden increase in stress and pressure. This increase in pressure causes the pile to vibrate, resulting in a loud, low-frequency noise that sounds like a grunt. Grunting can be an indication of the pile being driven to the required depth, but it can also be a sign of potential issues such as pile damage or soil instability.

87. For filling cracks in masonry structures involve____ the type of bitumen.

For filling cracks in masonry structures, the type of bitumen used is known as bituminous mastic. Bituminous mastic is a mixture of bitumen and fine aggregates, such as sand or filler, which is used to fill and seal cracks in masonry or concrete structures. It has excellent adhesion properties and can be applied in a variety of temperatures and weather conditions. Bituminous mastic is commonly used in construction and maintenance projects for sealing joints, repairing cracks, and waterproofing surfaces.

88. Explain the terms bending moment (BM) & Shear force (SF)?

Bending moment (BM) is the internal force that causes a beam or other structural element to bend or deform under an applied load. Shear force (SF) is the internal force that acts perpendicular to the axis of a structural element and causes a section of the beam to slide or shear in relation to the adjacent section. Both BM and SF are important concepts in structural engineering and mechanics.

89. What is the type of bitumen used for filling cracks in masonry structures?

Plastic bitumen is the best-suited bitumen used is for filling cracks in masonry structures.

90. What is the process called for covering the concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall?

The process of covering the concrete placed on the exposed top of an external wall is called coping. Coping is the process of covering the top surface of a wall, often with a sloping or curved profile, to prevent water penetration and protect the underlying masonry from weather damage. Coping can be made from a variety of materials, including stone, brick, concrete, and metal, and can be designed in a variety of styles to match the architectural style of the building.

91. ——– is the wall constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling.

A retaining wall is constructed to resist the pressure of an earth filling. A retaining wall is a structure designed to retain or hold back soil, rock, or other materials on one side, while allowing access or open space on the other side. Retaining walls are commonly used in civil engineering, landscaping, and construction projects to prevent soil erosion, create level ground, and provide structural support.

92. What is the duration of the minimum curing period?

As per IS 456 – 2000 recommendations the curing period of concrete must be at least 7 days in case of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement), and at least 10 days for the concrete with added mineral admixtures. It is also mandatory for OPC exposed to dry and hot weather conditions to have at least a 10-day curing period.

93. What is the minimum recommended weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis as per ASTM C136?

According to ASTM C136, the minimum recommended weight of fine aggregate for sieve analysis is 300 grams. The sieve analysis is a test used to determine the particle size distribution of a sample of aggregate. In the test, the sample is passed through a series of sieves with progressively smaller openings, and the amount of material retained on each sieve is weighed. The results of the test are used to determine the grading of the aggregate, which is an important factor in the design of concrete mixes.

94. Duration in hours for CBR samples to be soaked?

The duration for soaking CBR (California Bearing Ratio) samples depends on the type of soil being tested. According to ASTM D1883, the standard test method for CBR of soil in the laboratory, the samples should be soaked for 96 hours (4 days) if the soil has a plasticity index greater than 10, and for 24 hours if the soil has a plasticity index less than or equal to 10. Soaking the samples helps to simulate the effect of moisture on the soil in the field and ensures accurate test results.

95. What is the bearing capacity of soil?

The bearing capacity of soil is the maximum load that the soil can support without experiencing excessive settlement or failure. This capacity depends on factors such as soil type, moisture content, and the depth and size of the foundation. It is a critical factor in the design of structures such as buildings, bridges, and roads.

96. What do you mean by honeycomb in concrete?

Honeycomb in concrete refers to a defect in the surface finish of the concrete where voids or cavities are left in the hardened concrete, resembling a honeycomb. This occurs when the fresh concrete is not properly placed or compacted, causing air pockets to form in the mix. This can happen when the concrete is not vibrated or consolidated properly, or if the formwork is not properly sealed, allowing the concrete to escape.

97. What field tests are necessary for the quality check of cement?

. Following are the tests cement should undergo on field;

  1.  On looking, Cement should have a grey color with a light greenish shade.
  2. It should feel smooth when rubbed between fingers. If the hand is inserted in heap cement or its bags, it should feel cool.
  3. When a pinch of cement is thrown in Water then cement should float for some time before it sinks.
  4. Cement should be lump-free when checked by putting the hand in the mixture.

98. What are the types of cement?

Various types of cement which are used for quality construction are listed below: Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC), Low Heat Portland Cement, Colored Portland Cement, Hydrophobic cement, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), White Portland Cement (WPC), Rapid Hardening Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Sulphate resisting Portland Cement, White Portland Cement (WPC), etc.

99. What do you mean by Water-Cement Ratio and how it is related to the strength of concrete?

The Water-Cement Ratio: The ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement used in a concrete mix. A lower constant ensures higher strength and durability but is difficult to mix i.e. low workability of Concrete Mix. Admixtures are added to deal with workability.

100. List the steps involved in the concreting process?

Steps In Concreting are as given below:

  1. Batching of Concrete
  2. Mixing.
  3. Transportation of Concrete
  4. Compaction of Concrete
  5. Curing

101. What is Bursting Reinforcement?

Tensile stresses induced during prestressing operation are called as bursting reinforcement and it is maximum where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of the load.

102. What are the major difficulties faced during pumping concrete works?

Difficulties are discussed below,

  1. The force needs to overcome the friction between concrete and the pumping pipes along with the weight of concrete and the pressure head.
  2. Segregation and Bleeding are the major problems associated with pumping.
  3. Aggregate selection is important in this process to reduce errors in work.

103. Reason for concrete being weak in tension?

Concrete is a combination of materials like several aggregate types, cement, pozzolana, water, air, etc which are stick together with a cement paste. The zone called the “interface zone” is the weakest link in the structure. During compression, that interface is the only to transfer compressive stresses from aggregate to aggregate. Which does not require exceptional strength.

While the scenario under tension is not the same. The aggregates in tension are trying to pull away from each other and the bond is what holds it tightly. Since it is significantly weaker than the aggregates, it is what results in failure.

104.  Explain grouting?

Grout is a fluid form of concrete that is used to fill the voids and this method is nothing but grouting.

105. What is the recommended slump for the column?

75 to 125 mm

106. What is the range for the bearing capacity of granite?

Around in between 30 to 35 kg/cm2

107. What are the recommended standards of tamping rod used in cube filling for cube test?

According to the IS code 2386, a 16 mm steel rod with rounded edge is recommended specifications.

108. Explain What are the functions of columns in a building?

Support structural load and transfer it through beams to the foundation.

109. What are the uses of Groynes?

Uses of Groynes are,

  • Stop the longshore drift.
  • Slow down erosion.

110. What do we call the portion of a brick cut across the width?


 111. State and Explain reinforcements used in the process of prestressing?

 The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:

  1. Spalling Reinforcement: The Spalling stress adjured  leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. Which results into the breaking off of the surface concrete.
  2. Equilibrium reinforcements: In this type several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
  3. Bursting Reinforcements: Various stresses occurs in case of the stress concave trajectories towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses, here the reinforcement in the form of bursting is required.

112. Explain what is QA & QC?

Quality Assurance (QA): Set of activities to make sure quality in the processes by which works are done is termed as Quality Assurance (QA). It is the process of managing for quality.

Quality Control (QC): Quality Control can be defined as a set of activities that ensure quality in work. This activities focus on identifying defects in the actual products produced.

113. List down the Ratio of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?

The grades are having the following ratios:

  1. M5 – 1:5:10
  2. M7.5 – 1:4:8
  3. M10 – 1:3:6
  4. M15 – 1:2:4
  5. M20 – 1:1.5:3
  6. M25 – 1:1:2
  7. M30, M35, M40 – Design Mix Followed

114. The length of each fish plate is_______


115. Rail chairs are used to fix what?

  Double headrails

116. _____ is a highly effective process for repairing concrete walls or damaged surfaces.

Flat bearing

117. Explain cement soundness?

It is the property of cement that ensures that the cement does not go through any unwanted expansion or experience any change in volume once it has been set. Cement soundness is a necessary process to help cement get rid of any possibilities of the mortar or concrete from getting expanded.

118 What is used to check to creep of concrete?


119. What Are The Materials Used In Building A Gravity Dam?

Compacted earth and concrete are used depending on the dam type. Many gravity dams could be constructed of compacted earth. While high dams are generally made out of concrete. The spillway is a necessary requirement for dams.

120. What made you decide to become a civil engineer?

My passion and interest in learning building works have encouraged me to become civil engineer. I love working as a civil engineer and learning at every stage of my work.

121. What is the Purpose of the Gap in the Road on the Bridge?

The purpose of the gap in the road is to allow road expansion and contraction caused due to temperature changes, without damaging or deformation the road.

122. In Indian railways, the minimum formation width in embankment for a single line of board gauge is


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