Important Tips for civil Engineers (Part 1)

(1) . TEST FOR SILT & CLAY :-

  • Take 200 ml measuring cylinder fill sand up to 100 ml mark
  • Add 150 ml of water and shake well
  • Allow it to settle for 3 hrs.
  • Measure the total height and height of clay.
  • Calculate the clay and silt in total sand
  • Clay and Silt should not exceed 3% by weight (or) 8-10% by volume
  • For crushed sand Clay and Silt should not exceed 15% by weight

(2) . QUANTITIES REQUIRED :-

  • Brick work (CM 1:5) = 86 Kg / 10 m3
  • Brick work (CM 1:6) 9” thick = 80.64 Kg / 10 m3
  • Brick work (CM 1:3) 4½” thick = 15.46 Kg / 10 m3
  • Plastering (CM 1:3) = 1.50 bags / 10 m2
  • Plastering (CM 1:5) = 1.05 bags / 10 m2
  • Ceiling Plastering (CM 1:3) = 48 kg / 10 m2
  • Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2
  • Weathering Course = 7.68 Kg / m2
  • Flooring = 8.10 kg / m2
  • Pressed tiles for weathering course (CM 1:3) = 7.68 Kg / 10 m2
  • Granolithic floor finish = 8.10 Kg / 10 m2
  • Lime for white washing = 10 Kg/100 m2
  • Painting = 10 ltr/ 100 m2
  • Distemper 1st coat = 6.5 Kg / 100 m2
  • Distemper 2nd coat = 5.0 kg / 100 m2
  • Snowcem 1st coat = 30 Kg / 100 m2
  • Snowcem 2nd coat = 20 Kg / 100 m2
  • Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2

(3). STEEL:-

  • Weight of rod per meter length = d2 / 162 where d in mm
  • “L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300 mm
  • Hook for stirrups is 9 D for one side
  • For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69 D
  • No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
  • Design strength is M 40, target strength is 1.25 x 40 = 50 Mpa

(4) WEIGHT OF ROD PER METER LENGTH :-

  • 6mm = 0.222
  • 8mm = 0.395
  • 10mm = 0.616
  • 12mm = 0.888
  • 16mm = 1.578
  • 20mm = 2.466
  • 25mm = 3.853
  • 32mm = 6.313
  • 40mm = 9.865

(5) CLEAR COVER TO MAIN REINFORCEMENT

  • FOOTINGS : 50 mm
  • RAFT FOUNDATION.TOP : 50 mm
  • RAFT FOUNDATION.BOTTOM/SIDES : 75 mm
  • STRAP BEAM : 50 mm
  • GRADE SLAB : 20 mm
  • COLUMN : 40 mm

  • SHEAR WALL : 25 mm
  • BEAMS : 25 mm
  • SLABS : 15 mm
  • FLAT SLAB : 20 mm
  • STAIRCASE : 15 mm
  • Retaining WALL : 20/ 25 mm
    on earth
  • WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES : 20 / 30 mm

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