# Important Tips for civil Engineers (Part 1)

#### (1) . TEST FOR SILT & CLAY :-

• Take 200 ml measuring cylinder fill sand up to 100 ml mark
• Add 150 ml of water and shake well
• Allow it to settle for 3 hrs.
• Measure the total height and height of clay.
• Calculate the clay and silt in total sand
• Clay and Silt should not exceed 3% by weight (or) 8-10% by volume
• For crushed sand Clay and Silt should not exceed 15% by weight

#### (2) . QUANTITIES REQUIRED :-

• Brick work (CM 1:5) = 86 Kg / 10 m3
• Brick work (CM 1:6) 9” thick = 80.64 Kg / 10 m3
• Brick work (CM 1:3) 4½” thick = 15.46 Kg / 10 m3
• Plastering (CM 1:3) = 1.50 bags / 10 m2
• Plastering (CM 1:5) = 1.05 bags / 10 m2
• Ceiling Plastering (CM 1:3) = 48 kg / 10 m2
• Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2
• Weathering Course = 7.68 Kg / m2
• Flooring = 8.10 kg / m2
• Pressed tiles for weathering course (CM 1:3) = 7.68 Kg / 10 m2
• Granolithic floor finish = 8.10 Kg / 10 m2
• Lime for white washing = 10 Kg/100 m2
• Painting = 10 ltr/ 100 m2
• Distemper 1st coat = 6.5 Kg / 100 m2
• Distemper 2nd coat = 5.0 kg / 100 m2
• Snowcem 1st coat = 30 Kg / 100 m2
• Snowcem 2nd coat = 20 Kg / 100 m2
• Paint ready mixed one coat = 10 ltr / 100 m2

### (3). STEEL:-

• Weight of rod per meter length = d2 / 162 where d in mm
• “L” for column main rod in footing is minimum of 300 mm
• Hook for stirrups is 9 D for one side
• For Cantilever anchorage length for main steel is 69 D
• No. of stirrups = (clear span/Spanning) + 1
• Design strength is M 40, target strength is 1.25 x 40 = 50 Mpa

• 6mm = 0.222
• 8mm = 0.395
• 10mm = 0.616
• 12mm = 0.888
• 16mm = 1.578
• 20mm = 2.466
• 25mm = 3.853
• 32mm = 6.313
• 40mm = 9.865

### (5) CLEAR COVER TO MAIN REINFORCEMENT

• FOOTINGS : 50 mm
• RAFT FOUNDATION.TOP : 50 mm
• RAFT FOUNDATION.BOTTOM/SIDES : 75 mm
• STRAP BEAM : 50 mm
• GRADE SLAB : 20 mm
• COLUMN : 40 mm

• SHEAR WALL : 25 mm
• BEAMS : 25 mm
• SLABS : 15 mm
• FLAT SLAB : 20 mm
• STAIRCASE : 15 mm
• Retaining WALL : 20/ 25 mm
on earth
• WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES : 20 / 30 mm